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Evaluation of Rhizobial Inoculation Methods for Chickpea

Evaluation of Rhizobial Inoculation Methods for Chickpea,10.2134/agronj2002.0851,Agronomy Journal,Stephen Kyei-Boahen,Alfred E. Slinkard,Fran L. Walle

Evaluation of Rhizobial Inoculation Methods for Chickpea   (Citations: 13)
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treating the seed with a peat-based powder or liquid inoculant before planting. However, some studies have Rhizobia inoculated onto legume seeds are often exposed to ad- shown that a large majority of the rhizobia, applied to verse environmental conditions, which can affect survival and subse- quent effectiveness. Hence, soil-applied granular inoculants have re- seed via conventional seed inoculation, die on the seed ceived much attention recently. We examined the efficacy of various before seeding or shortly after placement in the soil inoculation methods at four sites in Saskatchewan, Canada, in 1997 due to exposure to seed treatment chemicals, seed-coat and 1998 using desi- and kabuli-type chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). toxins, dehydration, or excessive heat (Brockwell et al., Seed inoculation treatments (liquid or peat-based powder) were com- 1980; Roughley et al., 1993). Consequently, interest is pared with soil inoculation (granular inoculant) either placed in the growing in the use of granular inoculants because they seed furrow or side-banded (i.e., 2.5 cm to the side) at depths of either are applied directly to the soil, avoid direct contact with 2.5 or 8 cm below the seed. Nodule formation in the seed inoculation seed-treated chemicals, and are better able to withstand treatments was restricted to the crown region of the root system, adverse environmental conditions. Scudder (1975), us- whereas soil inoculation enhanced nodulation on the lateral roots. In ing granular inoculant in the seed furrow, obtained a 1997, granular inoculant placed below the seed increased kabuli seed yield by 36 and 14% over the liquid and peat-based inoculants, respec- 38% yield increase over seed-applied inoculant in soy- tively, whereas desi seed yield increased 17 and 5%, respectively. Seed bean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) under hot and dry condi- yield responses were inconsistent in 1998. Seed protein concentration, tions in Florida. Similarly, Bezdicek et al. (1978), work- percentage N derived from the atmosphere (%Ndfa), and amount of ing with soybean, found that placing granular inoculant N2 fixed were typically lower for the liquid inoculant than for the in the soil with the seed was superior to seed-applied peat and granular inoculants, which did not differ. The dry weight inoculant. Brockwell et al. (1980) summarized the re- of lateral-root nodules was highly correlated with yield parameters, sults of experiments with several legumes, including suggesting that the lateral-root nodules contributed significantly to chickpea, where granular inoculant was used. They N2 fixation and yield. Although the peat and granular inoculants were found that when conditions were unfavorable for the equally effective in establishing successful symbiosis, placing granular survival of rhizobia, or when germination was delayed inoculant 2.5 to 8.0 cm below the seed may improve yield and quality. due to environmental conditions, soil inoculation re- sulted in better nodulation and often better plant growth and yield than seed-applied inoculants. Other investiga-
Journal: Agronomy Journal - AGRON J , vol. 94, no. 4, 2002
Cumulative Annual
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