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NUTRIENT CYCLING BY ANIMALS IN FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS

NUTRIENT CYCLING BY ANIMALS IN FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS,Michael J. Vanni

NUTRIENT CYCLING BY ANIMALS IN FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS   (Citations: 60)
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■ Abstract Animals are important in nutrient cycling in freshwater ecosystems. Via excretory processes, animals can supply nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) at rates comparable to major nutrient sources, and nutrient cycling by animals can sup- port a substantial proportion of the nutrient demands of primary producers. In addition, animals may exert strong impacts on the species composition of primary producers via effects on nutrient supply rates and ratios. Animals can either recycle nutrients within a habitat, or translocate nutrients across habitats or ecosystems. Nutrient translocation by relatively large animals may be particularly important for stimulating new primary production and for increasing nutrient standing stocks in recipient habitats. Animals also have numerous indirect effects on nutrient fluxes via effects on their prey or by modification of the physical environment. Future studies must quantify how the impor- tance of animal-mediated nutrient cycling varies among taxa and along environmental gradients such as ecosystem size and productivity.
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    • ...The role of animals in transporting nutrients from littoral to pelagic habitats is probably greater in small lakes (Vanni, 2002), while species richness and food chain length both increase with lake size (Dodson et al., 2000; Reche et al., 2005; Post et al., 2000)...

    Tiina Nõges. Relationships between morphometry, geographic location and water quali...

    • ...Biota can play a central role in regulating the flux of energy and nutrients across ecosystem boundaries (Vanni 2002)...
    • ...Excretion also provides nutrients in inorganic forms (e.g., ammonia, phosphate) that are immediately available for uptake (Vanni 2002)...
    • ...Excretory processes have largely been ignored for diadromous fish, although the importance of fish excretion in nutrient cycling is widely recognized (Kraft 1993; Vanni 2002; McIntyre et al. 2007)...

    Annika W. Walterset al. Anadromous alewives ( Alosa pseudoharengus ) contribute marine-derived...

    • ...The movement of marine-derived nutrients into freshwater ecosystems by anadromous fishes can have important consequences for local ecological processes (Durbin et al. 1979; Naiman et al. 2002; Vanni 2002; Schindler et al. 2003, 2005)...
    • ...Although nutrient inputs from adult carcasses and eggs are the largest input terms, direct nutrient excretion may be important in many ecosystems because it supplies forms of nitrogen and phosphorus that are immediately available for uptake (Vanni 2002)...
    • ...Direct nutrient excretion is commonly measured or modeled in fish (Kraft 1993; Schindler and Eby 1997; Vanni 2002; Vanni et al. 2002), but we know of no direct estimates of nutrient excretion by anadromous fish...
    • ...Previous studies have raised concerns about excretion rates measured over extended periods of time (.1 h) because these rates tend to decline when fish are not feeding (Vanni 2002)...
    • ...Nutrient excretion by vertebrates can have large effects on local food webs and ecosystems, particularly when ecosystems are relatively small and animals aggregate at high densities (Post et al. 1998, 2007; Vanni 2002)...

    David M. Postet al. Nutrient Excretion Rates of Anadromous Alewives during Their Spawning ...

    • ...Plant–herbivore interactions emphasize how consumers regulate resource availability at the ecosystem level (Carpenter et al. 1987; Power 1990; Vanni 2002), particularly in freshwater habitats (Gruner et al. 2008)...
    • ...Animals can affect whole-system nutrient cycling via direct effects such as increasing nutrient availability via waste excretion or by indirect effects such as altering nutrient dynamics by changing the assemblage structure (Vanni 2002)...

    Clay Porter Arangoet al. Herbivory by an invasive snail increases nitrogen fixation in a nitrog...

    • ...Rates obtained by both methods are comparable Vanni 2002...
    • ...The modeled decrease in algae biomass is due in part to the decrease in nutrient recycling slowing uptake and growth; recycling by zooplankton supplies a substantial amount of nutrients Fig. 8a and supports a substantial fraction of phytoplankton primary production Wen and Peters 1994; Vanni 2002...
    • ...The resulting shift toward benthic production Vanni 2002, where growth is light limited Fig. 8d, further slows uptake Fig. 8c and growth...
    • ...mand supported by excretion from both mussels and zooplankton of 15‐26% and 6‐16% Table 3, respectively, is consistent with literature values of 4‐58 and 10%, respectively Vanni 2002...

    Leon Boegmanet al. Spatial-Dynamic Modeling of Algal Biomass in Lake Erie: Relative Impac...

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