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Hydrogen isotope fractionation in freshwater algae: I. Variations among lipids and species

Hydrogen isotope fractionation in freshwater algae: I. Variations among lipids and species,10.1016/j.orggeochem.2006.12.004,Organic Geochemistry,Zhaoh

Hydrogen isotope fractionation in freshwater algae: I. Variations among lipids and species   (Citations: 27)
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Five species of freshwater green algae, including three strains of Botryococcus braunii (two A Race, one B Race), Eudorina unicocca and Volvox aureus, were cultured under controlled conditions in media containing different concentrations of deuterium. The hydrogen isotopic ratios of lipids in the algae, including alkadienes, botryococcenes, heptadecenes, fatty acids, and phytadiene, were measured by gas chromatography–isotope ratio-mass spectrometry (GC–IRMS) and found to closely track water δD values. While correlation coefficients (R2) in excess of 0.99 for all lipids in all species suggest that lipid δD values can be used to determine water δD values, hydrogen isotope fractionation was found to vary systematically between lipids and lipid homologues within a single alga, as well as for the same lipid between species of algae. Under similar growth conditions, two species of Chlorophyceae (Eudorina unicocca and Volvox aureus) and three species of Trebouxiophyceae (Botryococcus braunii) produced palmitic acid (C16 fatty acid) that differed by 90–100‰ relative to water. Ubiquitous lipids such as palmitic acid, with a multitude of aquatic and terrestrial sources, are therefore not good targets for D/H-based paleohydrologic reconstructions. In addition to the use of source-specific biomarkers that derive unambiguously from a single family or species, paleohydrologic applications of lipid D/H ratios will need to consider the as yet unstudied potential influence that environmental parameters such as nutrients, light and temperature, etc., may have on D/H fractionation during lipid synthesis.
Journal: Organic Geochemistry - ORG GEOCHEM , vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 582-608, 2007
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    • ..., to the oxygenated, brackish and deuterium-depleted surface water where their lipid δD values can be expected to closely co-vary with the surface water δDvalue...

    Julian P. Sachset al. Southward movement of the Pacific intertropical convergence zone AD140...

    • ...This range is largely consistent with previous studies of lipids from marine (van der Meer et al., 2007; Jones et al., 2008) and lacustrine (Chikaraishi and Naraoka, 2005) sediments, as well as from cultured algae (Sessions et al., 1999; Englebrecht and Sachs, 2005; Schouten et al., 2006; Zhang and Sachs, 2007; Zhang et al., 2009)...
    • ...The pattern is unexpected because lipid/water fractionations have been generally assumed to arise in lipid biosynthetic pathways (e.g., Sessions et al., 1999; Chikaraishi et al., 2004a; Zhang and Sachs, 2007), and those pathways are – at least for fatty acids – nearly identical in eukaryotes and bacteria (Marrakchi et al., 2002; Rock and Jackowski, 2002)...
    • ...While significant differences in dD values for related lipids produced by the same organism have previously been observed (Chikaraishi et al., 2004c; Zhang and Sachs, 2007), they generally arise from the downstream processing of fatty acids or other lipids and so there has been no reason to expect systematic D/H offsets between bacteria and eukaryotes...
    • ...This offset has been previously observed in studies of individual organisms (Chikaraishi et al., 2004a, 2004b; Chikaraishi and Naraoka, 2006; Sessions et al., 1999, 2002; Zhang and Sachs, 2007; Zhang et al., 2009) and of sediments (Sauer et al., 2001; Andersen et al., 2001; Huang et al., 2004)...
    • ...Given the ubiquity of D-depletion among isoprenoid lipids, a strong fractionation during the biosynthesis of the intermediate isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) is a plausible explanation (Sessions et al., 1999; Zhang and Sachs, 2007), but requires further confirmation...
    • ...Again, these differences have been noted in the lipids of individual organisms (Chikaraishi et al., 2004b; Huang et al., 2004; Sessions, 2006; Zhang and Sachs, 2007), and we now propose that such offsets are ubiquitous...

    Chao Liet al. Hydrogen-isotopic variability in lipids from Santa Barbara Basin sedim...

    • ...Indeed, D enrichment of the residual material and D-depletion of the product has been reported for fatty acid desaturation (Zhang and Sachs, 2007)...

    Valérie F. Schwabet al. The measurement of D/H ratio in alkenones and their isotopic heterogen...

    • ... composition (expressed as dD value, where d D=( Rsample/ Rstandard) · 1000; with R being the ratio between the abundances of deuterium and protium, R =D / H) of a variety of lipid biomarkers can be used to infer the hydrogen isotopic composition of the water used by photosynthetic organisms (Sessions et al., 1999; Sauer et al., 2001; Chikaraishi and Naraoka, 2003; Huang et al., 2004; Sachse et al., 2004; Englebrecht and Sachs, 2005; Zhang ...
    • ...Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 72 (2008) 793–806 Recent laboratory studies on algal lipids have found significant differences in net isotopic fractionation between fatty acids from different species of freshwater algae (Zhang and Sachs, 2007)...
    • ...A detailed description of the water isotopes measurement procedure can be found in Zhang and Sachs (2007)...
    • ...This is consistent with previously reported differences between phytol, phytadienes and hydrocarbons in algae (Sessions et al., 1999; Zhang and Sachs, 2007)...
    • ...On the contrary, calibration studies on batch cultures and natural systems have demonstrated that such a simple model was inadequate for hydrogen isotopes in algae (Zhang and Sachs, 2007)...
    • ...Phytol is ultimately formed from geranylgeranyldiphosphate (GGPP) through the elimination of three carbon–carbon double bonds (see discussion in Zhang and Sachs (2007), and references therein)...
    • ...A possible explanation for this observation could be that different species exhibit different D/H fractionation during lipid synthesis, as demonstrated for different species of cultured green algae (Zhang and Sachs, 2007), and/or a shifting cyanobacterial population in the ponds and microbial mats as salinity increased...
    • ...In fact, the species-specific differences observed in alipid–water for freshwater algae, as observed by Zhang and Sachs (2007), might also be related to different water uptake strategies by these algae...

    Dirk Sachseet al. Inverse relationship between D/H fractionation in cyanobacterial lipid...

    • ...Several studies of terrestrial plants and aquatic macrophytes also suggest that interspecies variability is common (Chikaraishi et al., 2004a,b; Sessions, 2006; Zhang and Sachs, 2007)...
    • ...Author's personal copy and Freeman, 2006; Zhang and Sachs, 2007)...

    Ashley A. Joneset al. D/H ratios of fatty acids from marine particulate organic matter in th...

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