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Herniation Pit of the Femoral Neck

Herniation Pit of the Femoral Neck,Michael J. Pitt,Anna R. Graham,Jeff H. Shipman,Walter Birkby

Herniation Pit of the Femoral Neck   (Citations: 35)
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    • ...Leunig et al. reported a 33% prevalence of herniation pits of the femoral head-neck junction with underlying femoroacetabular impingement, whereas prevalence of herniation pits in the normal population is known to be only about 5% [1, 2]. This high prevalence implies that a herniation pit may be one of the diagnostic findings in FAI [1, 3–5]...
    • ...Originally, herniation pits were suggested to be synovial invaginations through cortical defects at the femoral neck, and this herniation was thought to be mediated by pressure from tightened iliofemoral ligaments of the anteromedial hip capsule with extension and internal rotation of the hip [2, 12]...
    • ...In this context, it was concluded that herniation pits are more likely to be pathologic findings caused by femoroacetabular impingement rather than incidental findings in the normal population [1, 2, 10, 12]...

    Jin Ah Kimet al. Herniation pits in the femoral neck: a radiographic indicator of femor...

    • ...Herniation pits (HPs) of the femoral neck were first described by Pitt et al. in 1982 [1]...
    • ...In contrast to earlier publications, in which HPs were generally recognized as an incidental finding [1, 3], in current literature they are mentioned in the context of femoro-acetabular impingement (FAI) [4–9] and are discussed as a possible radiographic indicator for FAI [4, 9]. Because FAI leads to premature osteoarthritis of the hip...
    • ...HPs were characterized by their completely surrounding sclerosis and clear demarcation [1, 22, 23], while focal osteoporosis was characterized by none or partial surrounding sclerosis and predominantly missing demarcation [12] 646 Skeletal Radiol (2010) 39:645–654...
    • ...Lesions, which we classified as HPs in MSCT examinations, showed the typical characteristics of HPs as defined by Pitt et al. [1] and described in case reports [22, 23]...
    • ...Osseous characteristics of HPs have been previously described by histological examination [1, 4, 22, 23]...
    • ...The varying presence and size of cortical breaks in the overlying cortex of HPs [1, 23] is in accordance with our results...
    • ...Increased cortical thickness in our specimens corresponds to reactive new bone formation in the cortex [1]...
    • ...Reactive bone changes in the periphery [1] were observed as surrounding sclerosis in all lesions defined as HPs...
    • ...The size of HPs in our specimens was in accordance with the definition of Pitt et al. [1], describing HPs as having less than 1 cm in maximum diameter...

    Stephanie Panzeret al. Herniation pits and cystic-appearing lesions at the anterior femoral n...

    • ...Herniation pits (HPs) of the femoral neck were first described by Pitt et al. [1] as cavities beneath the surface of the reaction area [2]...
    • ...Pitt et al. [1] showed that HPs are formed by herniation of soft tissues through erosions or perforations of the reaction area surface and account for the round to oval radiolucency in the proximal superior quadrant of the femoral neck in anteroposterior (AP) radiographs...
    • ...The exact aetiology is still under discussion [1, 3]. In contrast to earlier publications, in which HPs were generally recognised as an incidental finding [1, 4], in the current literature, they are mentioned in context with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) [3, 5–9]...
    • ...The exact aetiology is still under discussion [1, 3]. In contrast to earlier publications, in which HPs were generally recognised as an incidental finding [1, 4], in the current literature, they are mentioned in context with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) [3, 5–9]...
    • ...The original definition of Pitt et al. [1] does not contain a minimum size for HPs...
    • ...Thereby small HPs had to be distinguished from intraosseous perforating branches of the medial femoral circumflex artery, which are characterised by their superior marginal location, small size, and multiplicity [1]...
    • ...Pitt et al. [1] estimated the prevalence at about 5% in normal adults...
    • ...Because of the corresponding morphological criteria and the supporting previous mention of Daenen et al. [28], we extended the definition of Pitt et al. [1] and counted typical lesions not only in the superior portion, but also in the inferior portion of the proximal anterior femoral neck as HPs...

    Stephanie Panzeret al. CT assessment of herniation pits: prevalence, characteristics, and pot...

    • ...Herniation pits are radiolucencies surrounded by a sclerotic margin that are typically located in the anterior proximal superior quadrant of the femoral neck and occur in some 33% of patients; they range in size from 3 to 15 mm (mean, 5 mm) [52]...

    Moritz Tannastet al. Femoroacetabular Impingement: Radiographic Diagnosis—What the Radiolog...

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