Anatomy and Histology of the Female Reproductive Tract of Arabian Camel

Anatomy and Histology of the Female Reproductive Tract of Arabian Camel,A. Srikandakumar,E. H. Johnson,O. Mahgoub,I. T. Kadim,D. S. Al-Ajmi

Anatomy and Histology of the Female Reproductive Tract of Arabian Camel  
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To exploit the recent advances in techniques such as super ovulation and embryo transfer a sound understanding of the reproductive biology of the camel is essential. One hundred and twenty normal non-pregnant and eight pregnant female camel reproductive tracts from the abattoir were examined. All the histological slides were stained with H & E. The camel's uterus was shaped more like the letter T than the classical Y shaped bipartite uterus seen in other ruminants. The left horn was significantly (p < 0.05) longer (77.75 mm ± 5.58: mean ± sem) than the right horn (59.37 mm ± 2.95). The length of the uterine body was 67.56 mm ± 5.68. In all eight early pregnant tracts, the fetuses were exclusively implanted in the left uterine horn. The cervix was very short (3.62 mm ± 1.32) with 4 to 5 rows of outgrowth ridges and the vagina was relatively long (322.6 mm ± 4.21). The endometrial lining consisted of a single layer of columnar epithelium supported by a broad, highly cellular connective tissue stroma with simple tubular glands. A thick layer of myometrium surrounded the endometrial tissue. The oviducts were 140 to 300 mm long, larger at the uterine end and opened into the uterine horn with distinct circular papilla like projections. The oviductal epithelium consisted of a single layer of ciliated and non-ciliated columnar cells. The camel is a seasonally polyestrus induced type of ovulating animal. Decreasing length of daylight appears to be the stimulus for seasonality in camels. This can account for the various ovarian structures that were seen in the ovaries, which were collected during the shorter day length months of November and December. The ovaries were flattened, lobulated and each ovary was enclosed in an ovarian bursa. In the mature follicles, the inner avascular zona granulosa layer was made up of several layers of cells and was surrounded by a vascular thecal layer of cells. The histological appearances of atretic follicles varied enormously. Large follicles (> 10mm) and small follicles (5-10 mm) were seen in 96% of the ovaries examined. The Graafian follicles were 13.55 mm ± 2.74 and the corpora lutea were 8.92 mm ± 0.54 in diameter. In contrast to previous anatomical studies, we have found that the camel clearly has a bipartite uterus.
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