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Confidence Interval
fibonacci sequence
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The fibonacci sequence: Relationship to the human hand
The fibonacci sequence: Relationship to the human hand,10.1053/jhsu.2003.50000,Journal of Hand Surgeryamerican Volume,Andrew E. Park,John J. Fernande
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The fibonacci sequence: Relationship to the human hand
(
Citations: 6
)
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Andrew E. Park
,
John J. Fernandez
,
Karl Schmedders
,
Mark S. Cohen
Purpose: The motion path of the digits follows the path of an equiangular spiral in which a constant angle is formed by all radial vectors along the curve. This implies that the lengths of the metacarpals, proximal, middle, and distal phalanges approximate a
Fibonacci sequence
in which the ratio of any 2 consecutive numbers approaches the number 1.61803 (phi). This study tested the hypothesis that the metacarpal and phalangeal bone lengths follow the Fibonacci relationship. Methods: Standardized xrays were taken of the hands of 100 healthy volunteers. The proximal phalanx length was subtracted from the sum of the lengths of the middle and distal phalanges and the metacarpal length was subtracted from the sum of the lengths of the middle and proximal phalanges. Confidence intervals for the quotients of the measured lengths of the adjacent bones of the hand also were used for statistical analysis. Results: Only 1 of 12 bone length ratios contained the ratio phi in the 95% confidence interval, that of the small finger metacarpal and proximal phalanx. The largest variability was seen in the small finger phalangeal relationships. Conclusion: The application of the
Fibonacci sequence
to the anatomy of the human hand, although previously accepted, is a relationship that is not supported mathematically. The difference between individual bone lengths as measured at the joint line and the center of rotation of the joints may explain our finding. (J Hand Surg 2003;28A:157–160.
Journal:
Journal of Hand Surgeryamerican Volume  J HAND SURGAM
, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 157160, 2003
DOI:
10.1053/jhsu.2003.50000
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Citation Context
(3)
...(
2003
) studied the application of the Fibonacci sequence to the anatomy of the human hand...
Esteban PeñaPitarch
,
et al.
Virtual human hand: model and kinematics
...Studies have not supported his other idea that the lengths of the phalanges follow a Fibonacci series [8,
16
]...
...Park et al. concluded that the anatomical bone lengths of the digits failed to correspond to the Fibonacci sequence [
16
]...
Alan L. Hutchison
,
et al.
Fibonacci, Littler, and the Hand: A Brief Review
...[
PFSC03
, HD02, Lit73] could not support Littler’s theory but did not find a better relationship either...
...The pose and orientation of the three phalanxes within the plane can be computed from ratio q, and Littler’s Fibonacci ratio of phalanx bone lengths [Lit73,
PFSC03
]...
...For the length of the thumb we assume that the two phalanxes have equal length [Lit73,
PFSC03
]...
Gerrit Hillebrand
,
et al.
Inverse Kinematic Infrared Optical Finger Tracking
References
(4)
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D'arcy Thompson
Journal:
Nature
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On The Adaptability of Man’s Hand (With Reference to the Equiangular Curve)
(
Citations: 16
)
J. WILLIAM LITTLER
Journal:
Hand
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The motion path of the digits
(
Citations: 13
)
Amit Gupta
,
Gregory S. Rash
,
Naveen N. Somia
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Mark P. Wachowiak
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Jeff Jones
,
A. Desoky
Journal:
Journal of Hand Surgeryamerican Volume  J HAND SURGAM
, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 10381042, 1998
Threedimensional geometric analysis of the metacarpophalangeal joint
(
Citations: 25
)
K. Tamai
,
J. Ryu
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K. N. An
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R. L. Linscheid
,
W. P. Cooney
,
E. Y. S. Chao
Journal:
Journal of Hand Surgeryamerican Volume  J HAND SURGAM
, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 521529, 1988
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Citations
(6)
Virtual human hand: model and kinematics
Esteban PeñaPitarch
,
Neus Ticó Falguera
,
Jingzhou Yang
Journal:
Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering  COMPUT METHODS BIOMECH BIOMED
, vol. aheadofp, no. aheadofp, pp. 112, 2012
Fibonacci, Littler, and the Hand: A Brief Review
Alan L. Hutchison
,
Richard L. Hutchison
Journal:
Hand
, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 364368, 2010
General Concepts of Wrist Biomechanics and a View from Other Species
(
Citations: 2
)
J. B. TANG
Journal:
Journal of Hand Surgeryeuropean Volume  J HAND SURGEUR VOL
, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 519525, 2008
An experimental investigation of GMSK modulation
I. Canturk
,
F. Ruyal Ergul
Conference:
MELECON  IEEE Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference  MELECON
, 1994
Inverse Kinematic Infrared Optical Finger Tracking
(
Citations: 2
)
Gerrit Hillebrand
,
Martin Bauer
,
Kurt Achatz
,
Gudrun Klinker