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Development and Utilization of SSRs to Estimate the Degree of Genetic Relationships in a Collection of Pearl Millet Germplasm

Development and Utilization of SSRs to Estimate the Degree of Genetic Relationships in a Collection of Pearl Millet Germplasm,10.2135/cropsci2003.2284

Development and Utilization of SSRs to Estimate the Degree of Genetic Relationships in a Collection of Pearl Millet Germplasm   (Citations: 19)
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well (Hanna, 1996). The energy density of pearl millet is relatively high, arising from its higher oil content Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) cultivars derive from relative to maize, wheat or sorghum (Hill and Hanna, a narrow gene pool, and studies of genetic diversity in Pennisetum 1990). Pearl millet contains 27 to 32% more protein germplasm suggest promising opportunities for the use of undomesti- cated materials for improving pearl millet varieties. However, efficient than maize, higher concentrations of essential amino utilization of wild germplasm will require effective DNA marker- acids, twice the ether extract, and higher gross energy based fingerprinting strategies for rapid assessment of genetic relation- than maize (Ejeta et al., 1987). ships. The present study aims at development and utilization of a Some of the most threatening diseases of millet in- collection of microsatellite (SSR, simple sequence repeat) markers clude downy mildew (Sclerospora graminicola (Sacc.) J. for assessing the genetic diversity of 53 lines of millet. A small insert Schrot.), leaf rust (Puccinia substriata Ellis & Barth.), genomic library was screened with a (CT)15 oligonucleotide probe. A ergot (Claviceps purpurea (Fr.:Fr.) Tul.), and leaf spot total of 34 (CT)n-containing clones were identified, and specific prim- (Bipolaris setariae (Sawada) Shoemaker). Effective re- ers were designed for 18 of these. Of 18 new microsatellites developed as a part of this work, 11 were used to estimate the genetic diversity, sistance to downy mildew and ergot are quantitatively along with 19 from other sources. Cluster analysis by the unweighted inherited and are not yet well-characterized genetically pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) showed two (Andrews et al., 1985). The complex inheritance of these major and eight minor clusters, suggesting that the millet germplasm traits complicates their transfer to elite lines. The intro- could readily be distinguished by UPGMA. The coefficients of genetic gression of these resistances into elite germplasm would distance among germplasm lines were high and averaged D 0.60 benefit from the availability of effective marker-assisted (range 0.28-0.92). Genetic diversity averaged 0.38. These results dem- selection (MAS). Moreover, one of the most important onstrated that genotypes with potential traits are maximally different concerns in the manipulation of millet germplasm is its from the cultivated gene pool and could readily be distinguished. Development and utilization of polymerase-chain-reaction-(PCR)- relatively narrow genetic base. Pearl millet cultivars are based markers such as SSRs is a valuable asset for estimating genetic generated from a narrow gene pool, and current breed- diversity, the identification of unique genotypes as potentially impor- ing programs rarely use wild materials. Studies of ge- tant new sources of alleles for enhancing important characteristics, netic diversity in Pennisetum germplasm suggest promis- and analyzing the evolutionary and historical development of cultivars ing opportunities for the use of undomesticated at the genomic level in pearl millet breeding programs. materials for improving pearl millet varieties. These ef- forts will require effective DNA marker-based finger- printing strategies for rapid assessment of genetic rela-
Journal: Crop Science - CROP SCI , vol. 43, no. 6, 2003
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