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Chemical Composition and Flavor of Ecuadorian Cocoa Liquor

Chemical Composition and Flavor of Ecuadorian Cocoa Liquor,10.1021/jf0116597,Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,Fabienne Luna,Dominique Crouzi

Chemical Composition and Flavor of Ecuadorian Cocoa Liquor   (Citations: 15)
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The contribution of the chemical composition to the flavor of cocoa liquor from an Ecuadorian selfed population of clone EET 95 was investigated. Polyphenols, purine alkaloids, organic acids, and sugars were quantified, and the key sensory characteristics of cocoa were scored by a trained panel. Despite the short bean fermentation (2 days) commonly used for Arriba cocoa, acetic acid content was closely correlated to liquor pH, demonstrating its essential role in cocoa liquor acidification. Polyphenols were positively correlated to astringency, bitterness, and the green note and negatively correlated to the fruity character. Alkaloid and polyphenol levels fluctuated significantly within the selfed progeny and tended to be lower than those of the heterozygous clone EET 95 (inbreeding effect). These results support the idea that polyphenols might be essential to the overall perception of cocoa liquor characteristics and indicate that the composition and the sensory quality of cocoa liquor are the result of both a genotypic contribution and the conditions of fermentation and roasting.
Journal: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry - J AGR FOOD CHEM , vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 3527-3532, 2002
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    • ...Fermentation is crucial, not only to the formation of key volatile fractions (alcohols, esters and fatty acids) but also provision of Maillard flavour precursors (amino acids and reducing sugars) (Buyukpamukcu et al., 2001; Kyi et al., 2005; Luna, Crouzillat, Cirou, & Bucheli, 2002)...

    Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwaet al. Matrix effects on flavour volatiles release in dark chocolates varying...

    • ...The chemistry of cocoa beans in fermentation is still under study (Buyukpamukcu et al, 2001; Luna et al, 2002; Misnawi, et al, 2003; Schwan and Wheals, 2004; Kyi et al, 2005) as are contributions from roasting and alkalization (Gill et al, 1984; Oberparleiter and Ziegleder, 1997; Jinap and Dimick, 1991; Dimick and Hoskin, 1999; Stark et al, 2005; Ramli et al, 2006; Granvogl et al, 2006; Stark et al, 2006a; Reineccius, 2006) and conching (Pontillon, 1995; Plumas et al, 1996 Awua, 2002; Beckett, 2000; Reineccius, 2006)...

    Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwaet al. Flavor Formation and Character in Cocoa and Chocolate: A Critical Revi...

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