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Sources of Variation in the Solvent Retention Capacity Test of Wheat Flour

Sources of Variation in the Solvent Retention Capacity Test of Wheat Flour,10.2135/cropsci2003.1628,Crop Science,Mary J. Guttieri,Edward Souza

Sources of Variation in the Solvent Retention Capacity Test of Wheat Flour   (Citations: 9)
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The solvent retention capacity (SRC) test uses the ability of flour of hard and soft wheat in the presence of artificially to retain a range of solvents as a means of evaluating economically important aspects of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) quality: pentosan imposed moisture stress were influenced to a greater content, starch damage, gluten strength, and general water retention. degree by genotype and moisture regime than the inter- Inbred lines from three soft spring wheat populations ('Vanna'/'Pena- action of the two (Guttieri et al., 2001b). Previous work wawa', 'Kanto 107'/IDO488, and M2/IDO470) were produced in repli- with the SRC test demonstrated significant differences cated, irrigated trials in 2000 and 2001 to assess variance components among genotypes for the retention by flour of all four for the SRC tests. Milling yield, flour ash, flour protein, and sugar standard SRC solvents (Guttieri et al., 2001a). In con- snap cookie diameter for these genotypes were determined. Flour trast, genotype environment interactions were insig- solvent (water, 500 g kg 1 sucrose, 50 g kg 1 sodium carbonate, and nificant for the four solvents. This is consistent with 50 g kg 1 lactic acid) retention capacities were measured, and variances investigations of the flour components assayed by the estimated for genotype, genotype environment interaction, and SRC test. Hong et al. (1989) found variation among error terms. The variance of genotypes for SRC values in the three populations ranged from 0.67 to 0.97 of the total variance (genotype, genotypes for pentosan content were much greater than genotype environment, and error) not attributed to main effects variation associated with genotype environment in- of year and replication. Correlations among genotypes were significant teraction. Gluten strength may be determined to a and positive for water, sodium carbonate, and sucrose SRC within greater degree by year, moisture stress, and genotype all three populations (r 0.70 to 0.92, P 0.01). In all three popula- than interactions of these components (Guttieri et al., tions, these SRC values were negatively correlated with cookie diame- 2000). This is not to dismiss the existence of genotype ter (r 0.54 to 0.89, P 0.01). Correlations between lactic acid environment interaction in the determination of end-use SRC, a measure of gluten strength, and the other SRC values were quality of wheat. However, it suggests that differences complex, as was the correlation between lactic acid SRC and cookie among genotypes for many quality attributes may be diameter. This suggests that milling and baking quality could be im- sufficiently large relative to the genotype environ- proved through manipulation of flour components using SRC se- lection. ment interaction to result in significant gain from selec- tion for the SRC test. Our previous study (Guttieri et al., 2001a) evaluated the utility of the SRC in cultivar evaluation. Solvent
Journal: Crop Science - CROP SCI , vol. 43, no. 5, 2003
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    • ...Depending on the genetic background, Guttieri and Souza (2003) found that genotype contributed 32 to 95% of the total variation in fl our yield and 61 to 81% of break-fl our yield, after blocking for year eff...
    • ...Detailed estimations of sources of variation in fl our milling have used short-fl ow experimental mills (Baenziger et al., 1985; Bassett et al., 1989, Guttieri and Souza, 2003; Souza et al., 2004)...
    • ...Location and year, however, repeatedly have been shown to infl uence variation in milling quality (Baenziger et al., 1985, Bassett et al., 1989, Gaines et al., 1996; Guttieri and Souza, 2003; Souza et al., 2004)...
    • ...Expected mean square terms for sources of variation were estimated as previously described (Baenziger et al., 1985; Guttieri et al., 2003; Guttieri and Souza, 2003)...
    • ...However the relative size of cultivar variances to error variances for milling traits was similar in the two-year study to the pooled variance of cultivar × year and error eff ects found by Guttieri and Souza (2003)...
    • ...Cultivar × year eff ects were small, less than 10% of total variation for fl our yield, when they were partitioned by Guttieri and Souza (2003)...
    • ...A number of other studies have found signifi cant cultivar × environment interactions for milling quality (Baenziger et al., 1985; Bassett et al., 1989; Gaines et al., 1996; Guttieri and Souza, 2003; Souza et al., 2004)...

    E. J. Souzaet al. Sources of Variation for Long-Flow Experimental Milling

    • ...In multiple research studies, signifi cant, negative correlations between SRC values and cookie diameter were detected (Gaines, 2000; Guttieri and Souza, 2003; Guttieri et al., 2001, 2002)...
    • ...In several studies, SRC values were signifi cantly infl uenced by diff erences among genotypes, and genotype accounted for a majority of the variation, indicating that the SRC test can be used to detect signifi cant diff erences among genotypes (Guttieri and Souza, 2003; Guttieri et al., 2001, 2002)...
    • ...Two of the studies included grain grown in Idaho with irrigation (Guttieri and Souza, 2003; Guttieri et al., 2001), and the third included irrigated and rain-fed samples from Idaho and Montana (Guttieri et al., 2002)...
    • ...SRC test as a selection tool using the method of comparing genotype and the interaction of genotype and environment in terms of signifi cance levels based on analysis of variance (Guttieri et al., 2001, 2002) or variance components (Guttieri and Souza, 2003)...
    • ...In previous work, the infl uence of genotype, environment (location or year), and their interaction on SRC results was evaluated (Guttieri and Souza, 2003; Guttieri et al., 2001, 2002)...
    • ...These diff erences in methods were described as minor, and conclusions made from evaluations utilizing one version are likely to apply to the other (Guttieri and Souza, 2003)...
    • ...Genotype was a signifi cant source of variation for SRC results at the 5-g scale for all four solvents in our study , as was detected in previous work (Guttieri and Souza, 2003; Guttieri et al., 2001); however, genotype signifi cantly infl uenced only SRC results for water and Na 2CO3 in Guttieri et al. (2002)...
    • ...A possible explanation for this contrast is that the grain used in Guttieri et al. (2001) and Guttieri and Souza (2003) was grown with irrigation, whereas our samples and those used in Guttieri et al. (2002) were grown under a wide range of natural precipitation levels...
    • ...Guttieri et al. (2001, 2002) and Guttieri and Souza (2003) indicated that G × E had little or no eff SRC results...
    • ...Variance components were used by Guttieri and Souza (2003), after standardizing as Reproduced from Crop Science...
    • ...Signifi cant interactions involving genotype [G×E and G×F(E)] were detected when SRC tests were conducted on samples from the a wide range of wheat production environments in eastern Washington, in contrast to previous studies where signifi cant genotype × environment interactions were not detected (Guttieri and Souza, 2003; Guttieri et al., 2001, 2002)...

    Carl Walkeret al. Using the Solvent Retention Capacity Test When Breeding Wheat for Dive...

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