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Bacillus acidocaldarius sp.nov., an Acidophilic Thermophilic Spore-forming Bacterium

Bacillus acidocaldarius sp.nov., an Acidophilic Thermophilic Spore-forming Bacterium,10.1099/00221287-67-1-9,Microbiology-sgm,G. DARLAND,T. D. BROCKt

Bacillus acidocaldarius sp.nov., an Acidophilic Thermophilic Spore-forming Bacterium   (Citations: 60)
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SUMMARY Fourteen cultures of thermophilic acidophilic bacteria have been isolated from a variety of thermal acid environments by enrichment at elevated temperatures and low pH. Morphological and physiological properties suggest that the bacteria are members of a homogeneous group of aerobic spore-forming rods. The base compo- sition of the DNA is about 62 % guanine plus cytosine, and this fact together with the physiological properties suggests that relationship to other species in the genus Bacillus is rather distant. The isolates are hence classified in a new species, Bacillus acidocaldarius. The species is characterized by the ability to grow at temperatures from 45" to 70" (optimum 60" to 65") and at pH values from 2.0 to 6.0 (optimum 3 to 4). In previous work we have shown that bacteria live in acid hot springs (PH 2 to 3) at temperatures up to 75" to 80" (Brock & Darland, 1970). In the present paper we report the characteristics of several Gram-variable spore-forming rods isolated from a variety of such acid thermal environments. These organisms grow at temperatures between 45" and 70" in media with pH values ranging from 2 to 5. Uchino & Doi (1967) isolated and described similar organisms from Japanese hot springs. They classified their isolates as Bacillus coagulans. Our isolates are similar to theirs but our more extensive studies raise the question of the precise taxonomic position of these organisms. Specifically, the pH optimum is considerably lower and the DNA base composition (62 to 64 moles % guanine + cytosine) is considerably higher than that of Bacillus coagulans. We propose to designate these organisms as a new species, Bacillus acidocaldarius. METHODS Enrichment procedure. Incubations were performed in the following basal medium (g./l. distilled water): (NH4)2S04, 0.2; MgSO,, 0-5; CaCl,. 2H20, 0.25; and KH2P04, 3.0. This medium was supplemented with various combinations of the following: glucose at final concentrations of 0-1 or 1.0 % (w/v), glycerol at 0.1 or 1.0% (w/v), ribose at 0.1 or 1-0 %(w/v), and yeast extract at 0.1 (w/v) %. The pH was adjusted to an appropriate value between 2 and 5 with 10 N-H,SO,. The cultures were incubated at 45, 50, 55 or 60". When turbidity was detected, the cultures were streaked on a solid medium made in
Journal: Microbiology-sgm , vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 9-15, 1971
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    • ...Darland and Brock isolated Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius from soil and water samples in Yellowstone National Park and Hawaiian Volcano National Park [23]...

    P. S. Milleret al. Extremophile‐inspired strategies for enzymatic biomass saccharificatio...

    • ...At . ferrooxidans TFBk [7] was grown at 28 ° C on 9K medium with FeSO 4 · 7 H 2 O to the final concentration of 7.0 g/l (as Fe 2+ ). Alb . acidocaldarius ATCC 27009 T = DSM 446 í was grown at 55°ë on BAM medium [8] with glucose (0.5%) and yeast extract (0.2%) as energy sources...

    A. E. Zhuravlevaet al. Energy supply processes in moderately thermophilic bacteria of the gen...

    • ...At the end of 2005, the Gram-positive genus Alicyclobacillus comprised 11 species (Darland & Brock, 1971; Deinhard et al., 1987a, b; Wisotzkey et al., 1992; Dufresne et al., 1996; Albuquerque et al., 2000; Goto et al., 2002a, 2003; Matsubara et al., 2002; Tsuruoka et al., 2003; Simbahan et al., 2004;Karavaikoet al., 2005),two subspecies (Nicolaus et al., 1998) and two genomic species (Albuquerque et al., 2000; Goto et al., 2002b)...
    • ...The type species is Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius (Darland & Brock, 1971; Wisotzkey et al., 1992)...
    • ...The bacteria mainly inhabit hot springs and soil, but can also infest fruit and crops (Uchino & Doi, 1967; Darland & Brock, 1971; Hippchen et al., 1981; Deinhard et al., 1987a, b; Hiraishietal.,1997;Nicolausetal.,1998;Albuquerqueetal., 2000; Goto et al., 2002b)...
    • ...Unless otherwise indicated, morphological observations and biochemical tests were performed using the methods of Darland & Brock (1971), Deinhard et al. (1987a, b), Albuquerque et al. (2000) and Goto et al. (2002c)...

    Keiichi Gotoet al. Proposal of six species of moderately thermophilic, acidophilic, endos...

    • ...This organism, isolated for the first time in Yellowstone National Park USA (Darland and Brock 1971), was considered a member of the Bacillus genus; more recently, comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences and cellular fatty acid profiles led to the reassignment to the new genus Alicyclobacillus...

    Barbara Di Lauroet al. Characterization of a β-glycosidase from the thermoacidophilic bacteri...

    • ...The aims of this study were to determine if thermophilic esterase EST2 (30) from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius, a bacterium first isolated from an acidic creek in Yellowstone National Park (6), exhibits high esterase activity in milk and in a standardized cheese model and to determine if this enzyme has thioesterase and ester-synthesizing activities like those of Lactococcus lactis EstA (38)...

    Luigi Mandrichet al. Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius Thermophilic Esterase EST2's Activity ...

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