Análisis de las temporadas de veda en la explotación marina de camarones del Golfo de Tehuantepec, México Analysis of the closed seasons in the marine shrimp exploitation of the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico
The brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus californiensis) and white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) fishery exploitation in the Gulf of the Tehuantepec (GT) between 1993 and 1997 is described. Two population indices were obtained for each species: the recruits abundance index (RA), and the spawners abundance index (SA). Five closed seasons (from May/June to August) were considered in order to analyze the annual variation of these indices based on two spectral components: the cycle and the tendency. The first component indicated that the closed seasons protected almost 100% of the white shrimp recruits and 90% of the brown shrimp recruits. The brown shrimp fishery resulted in a good exploitation state because the abundance tendency of the recruits and spawners were stable or constant. The white shrimp fishery resulted in an overfished state, because the abundance tendency of the recruits and spawners were in decline. The closed seasons suitably do not fulfil the objectives for what was implemented, that is, the simultaneous protection of the periods of reproduction and egg-laying in the high sea fishing zones. At the moment, these are applied from March to September, whereas the shrimp production continuously descends in the GT. A change to these dates from June/July to October was proposed to assure the protection of the spawners and the growth of the recruits of both species. Additionally, it is necessary to regulate the lagoons systems fisheries in the GT to optimize the production in the lagoon and of high sea.