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Structure, properties and applications of fullerenes

Structure, properties and applications of fullerenes,B. C. Yadav,Ritesh Kumar

Structure, properties and applications of fullerenes  
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This paper reports about fullerenes, its structure, properties and applications. Fullerenes are the third allotropic form of carbon material after graphite and diamond. These were discovered in 1985 by Harold. W. Kroto, Robert F. Curl and Richard E. Smalley. Fullerenes consist of 20 hexagonal and 12 pentagonal rings as the basis of an icosohedral symmetry closed cage structure. Each carbon atom is bonded to three others and is sp2 hybridized. The C60 molecule has two bond lengths, the 6:6 ring bonds can be considered "double bonds" and are shorter than the 6:5 bonds. C60 is not "superaromatic" as it tends to avoid double bonds in the pentagonal rings, resulting in poor electron delocalisation. As a result, C60 behaves like an electron deficient alkenes and reacts readily with electron rich species. The geodesic and electronic bonding factors in the structure account for the stability of the molecule. Fullerenes can be used as organic photovoltaics(OPV), these are powerful antioxidants, reacting readily and at a high rate with free radicals which are often the cause of cell damage or death. Other uses of C60 like catalysts, in water purification and biohazard protection, portable power, vehicles and medical.
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