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Yield Components of Wheat Grown under High Temperature Stress during Reproductive Growth

Yield Components of Wheat Grown under High Temperature Stress during Reproductive Growth,10.2135/cropsci1999.3961841x,Crop Science,L. R. Gibson,G. M.

Yield Components of Wheat Grown under High Temperature Stress during Reproductive Growth   (Citations: 33)
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were attributed mostly to lower kernel weight and only slightly to lower kernel number (Sofield et al., 1977; High temperature is a major determinant of wheat (Triticum aesti- Chowdhury and Wardlaw, 1978; Wardlaw et al., 1989a,b; vum L.) development and growth, decreasing yields by 3 to 5% per Tashiro and Wardlaw, 1990a,b). The responses of these 18C increase above 158C in plants under controlled conditions. Even yield components to temperature varied with timing and greater yield differences have been reported between favorable and unfavorable temperature conditions in the field. The objective of this duration of treatments and among cultivars. Tempera- study was to identify the yield components of the hard red winter tures as high as 30/258C decreased kernel number up wheat cultivar Karl 92 that are affected by controlled high temperature to 22% and kernel weight by as much as 38% (Wardlaw during maturation of intact plants under simulated field populations. et al., 1989a), and a greater increase in temperature from Plants at a final density of 144 m 2 were grown in the greenhouse 20/16 to 36/318C from 7 d after anthesis until ripeness until anthesis and transferred to growth chambers for temperature decreased kernel weight up to 85% (Tashiro and Ward- treatment. Day/night temperatures of 20/20, 25/20, 30/20, and 35/208C law, 1989). were imposed from 10 and 15 d after anthesis until ripeness in two High temperatures during kernel filling (10 d after experiments, and temperatures of 25/20, 30/20, and 35/208C were ap- anthesis until ripeness) decreased wheat yield by reduc- plied from 20 d after anthesis until ripeness in a third experiment. ing kernel weight (Warrington et al., 1977; Tashiro and Grain yield was reduced by 78%, kernel number was reduced by 63%, Wardlaw, 1990a; Stone and Nicolas, 1994). The largest and kernel weight was reduced by 29% at 35/208C compared with 20/ 208C from 10 d after anthesis until ripeness. The yield loss from high reduction in kernel weight, 23%, occurred when temper- temperature applied during this period was much greater than for ature was raised from 20/15 to 40/158C for 3 d beginning previous controlled-environment studies. Kernel numbers in treat- 30 d after anthesis (Stone and Nicolas, 1994). ments applied during early reproductive growth in our study were as Discrepancies exist among previous field and con- sensitive to high temperature as wheat plants in previous field studies. trolled-environment studies. Only a few controlled stud- High temperature applied 15 d after anthesis until ripening reduced ies have included temperatures above 308C and these grain yield 18%. Since kernel number was set by this time, the loss used short periods of very extreme temperatures late was exclusively due to decreased kernel weight. High temperature in grain filling. The experiments in this study were per- imposed from 20 d after anthesis decreased kernel weight by 18%. formed to determine the effect of high temperatures up to 358C during kernel development and filling on whole plants of the hard red winter wheat Karl 92 in popula-
Journal: Crop Science - CROP SCI , vol. 39, no. 6, 1999
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