The Plus-Minus time analysis method and its implementation

The Plus-Minus time analysis method and its implementation,Jocelyn Dufour,Darren S. Foltinek

The Plus-Minus time analysis method and its implementation  
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The Plus-Minus time analysis method, which is based on the plus-minus method of Hagedorn (1959), was developed to solve the time delays of reflection seismic data. The time delays are caused by low velocity near-surface deposits. The Plus-Minus time analysis method includes a Plus time analysis for depth analysis and a Minus time analysis for velocity determination. The method is based on the traveltime reciprocity and the determination of the crossover point. The crossover point determination uses the traveltime difference analysis of Lawton (1989) and the branch point analysis of Wang and Cheadle (1995). The use of all the possible overlapping shot spreads in the Plus time analysis allows overdetermination and statistical analysis. The Plus-Minus time analysis was coded in the Matlab language and tested with a synthetic dataset. The Plus-Minus time analysis method provides a reliable near-surface model with accurate depths and velocities. Purpose of the method The Plus-Minus time analysis method has two objectives: to establish a near-surface model of the earth in terms of subweathering layer thicknesses and seismic wave velocities; and to compute static corrections to be applied to seismic data. The surface layers of the earth are often made of unconsolidated deposits or soil, which have low seismic wave velocities. For example in Western Canada the near-surface layers are generally composed of Quaternary glacial deposits (Clague, 1991), while in South America or Africa the surface layers are made of weathered soil materials. These low velocity layers will induce recording delays of seismic reflection data. The impact of these delays on the reflector seismic structures and continuities can be quite significant. The use of seismic refracted wave arrivals to establish the thicknesses of these layers and their seismic wave velocities represents one of the best ways to correct for these delays.
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