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Isolation and Characterization of Staphylococci from Human Skin 11. Descriptions of Four New Species: Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus horninis, and Staphylococcus sim ul ans

Isolation and Characterization of Staphylococci from Human Skin 11. Descriptions of Four New Species: Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus capitis,

Isolation and Characterization of Staphylococci from Human Skin 11. Descriptions of Four New Species: Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus horninis, and Staphylococcus sim ul ans   (Citations: 85)
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Staphylococci were isolated from the skins of people living in North Carolina and New Jersey and were studied in an attempt to resolve their natural relationships. As a result of this study, four new species are proposed in this paper: Staphylococcus warneri, S. capitis, S. hominis, and S. simulans. The type strains of these species are ATCC 27836, ATCC 27840, ATCC 27844, and ATCC 27848, respectively. The new species were established on the basis of a variety of morphological, physiological, biochemical, and antibiotic characters. Cell wall composition was particularly useful in resolving species and correlated well with other characters. Characteristic pigment production was useful in distinguishing several of the different species. A summary of the character variation found in the species and a scheme for the classification of human cutaneous staphylococci are included in this paper. The predominant staphylococci found on human skin were S. epidermidis and S. horninis. A brief account of the classification of staphy- lococci and their occurrence on human skin is presented in the accompanying paper (15). Most of the recent attempts at classifying cutaneous staphylococci have utilized the Baird-Parker scheme (2-4, 10, 11). This scheme involves the use of a small number of readily definable key characters to identify isolates at the species and subgroup levels. However, because of the small number of characters used and the general lack of information available on species character variation, the scheme is limited in accuracy and to the number of species and/or subspecies that it can resolve. The specific purpose of our investigation was to identify the species of cutaneous staphylo- cocci of humans. To attempt this, we reevalu- ated existing taxonomic criteria, explored the use of additional characters, and estimated species character variation in cutaneous popu- lations. The results of studies on cutaneous strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis (Winslow and Winslow) Evans 1916, S. saprophyticus Fair- brother 1940, and three new species, s. cohnii, S. haemolyticus, and S. xylosus, are presented in the accompanying paper (15). The present ' Paper no. 4401 of the Journal Series of the North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, Raleigh, N.C. 27607. paper is concerned with the classification of four additional new species of human cutaneous staphylococci; it also contains summary data on species character variation, occurrence of spe- cies on human skin, and a classification scheme.
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    • ...One millilitre of a 3 YO H,O, solution is then added to the cell suspension of staphylococci or micrococci and any bubbling is recorded as positive for catalase (Kloos & Schleifer, 1975a)...
    • ...Staphylococci are non-motile (Kloos & Schleifer, 1975a)...
    • ...This test is used because most staphylococci are able to produce acid aerobically from glycerol in the presence of 0.4 mg erythromycin 1-1 (Kloos & Schleifer, 1975a; Schleifer & Kloos, 1975b)...

    J. Freneyet al. Recommended minimal standards for description of new staphylococcal sp...

    • ...Staphylococci were identified to species level by the method of Kloos and Schleifer (1975)...

    Jeremy I. Rosset al. Characterisation and molecular cloning of the novel macrolide-streptog...

    • ...Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus hominis have been found to be the predominant species on human skin (21) and Staphylococcus saprophyticus has been recognized as a distinct uropathogen (4, 5). Kloos and Smith found that Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were the Species most often associated with human in-...

    P. D. Ellneret al. Speciation of coagulase-negative staphylococci in the clinical laborat...

    • ...Taxonomy of the genus Staphylococcus was shaken by two important methodological steps: an extensive phenotypic investigation of human strains which led to the delineation of 10 species in 1975 (22, 32) and DNA relatedness studies which have currently circumscribed 29 species (15, 17, 19, 23, 31, 36) and four named subspecies (3, 9, 20, 25)...

    A. MORVANet al. Staphylococcus pasteun' sp. nov., Isolated from Human

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