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EMOTION AND MOTIVATION IN LEARNING: CURRENT RESEARCH, FUTURE DIRECTIONS, AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS

EMOTION AND MOTIVATION IN LEARNING: CURRENT RESEARCH, FUTURE DIRECTIONS, AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS,Andreas Olsson

EMOTION AND MOTIVATION IN LEARNING: CURRENT RESEARCH, FUTURE DIRECTIONS, AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS  
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Emotion and motivation are fundamental to learning, something that is well illustrated in the large body of research that these topics generate. However, because of the divergence of theoretical approaches and pre- ferred empirical methods, the nature and the interrelatedness of emotion, motivation and learning, remain contro- versial. This review surveys both controversial and consensual issues with a focus on basic research on the in- volvement of emotion and motivation in different modes of learning, among them Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning, and social learning. Special attention is given to the mechanisms responsible for assigning stimuli, events, and behaviors, their emotional value and how this affects subsequent behavior in both experimental and in real-world applications. In addition, explicit (declarative) and implicit (non-declarative) aspects of the learning process are discussed. Although, relevant research is drawn from different levels of analysis, links between levels are emphasized and, when feasible, related to models derived from evolutionary theory. Throughout the paper, each reviewed theme is followed by a number of questions that address important issues for future research. Finally, it is argued that a more systematic approach is needed to better integrate basic research on emotion, motivation and learning with practical applications. Four research-topics that illustrate promising avenues for further integration are presented and discussed.
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