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PENINGKATAN EFISIENSI PEMUPUKAN N PADA TANAMAN TEBU MELALUI REKAYASA KHELAT UREA-HUMAT

PENINGKATAN EFISIENSI PEMUPUKAN N PADA TANAMAN TEBU MELALUI REKAYASA KHELAT UREA-HUMAT,Sri Nuryani,Benito Heru Purwanto,Azwar Maas,Wiwik EW,Oka A Bann

PENINGKATAN EFISIENSI PEMUPUKAN N PADA TANAMAN TEBU MELALUI REKAYASA KHELAT UREA-HUMAT  
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Sugarcane needs fertilizers releasing readily-available nutrients, especially in the first six months of its growing period. One of the macronutrient, which is greatly demanded by the crop is nitrogen. This nutrient is essential for protein synthesis and vegetative organ development of the sugarcane. Urea is one of the N fertilizer containing high percentage of N (46 %), which is easily soluble in water. Major disadvantage of using the N fertilizer in the arable land is low fertilizer efficiency because of their high solubility and high possibility to leaching, volatilization and immobilization. Nitrogen loss through leaching mainly occurs in sandy soils Objective of the study. Immediate objective of the study are : 1. To formulate of urea-humic chelate fertilizer, 2. To develop an accurate rate of urea-humic chelate fertilizer in sandy soil . Sandy-Entisols (Psamment) has chemical and physical constraint for plant growth includes coarse soil texture, single or loosely soil structure, high permeability, low cation exchange capacity, low content of organic matter and nitrogen. Improvement of the fertilizer use efficiency in that soil will be done by employing the concept of slow release fertilizer, which one way of slow release mechanism is to apply a coating. The study will be done as long as one year (7 months). First step is spent to produce urea-humic fertilizer and to test the characteristics of the fertilizer. Second step is consumed to find the accurate rate of the fertilizers applied in Psaments. The result will be a prototype of slow release N fertilizer for sugarcane using urea- humic fertilizer in order to improve nitrogen fertilizer efficiency for small-scale sugarcane farmer and sugarcane estate in agriculture industrial scale, and rationalize the demand of nitrogen fertilizer in national scale. One way of slow release mechanism is to apply a coating. In this research, a coating-material used is humic acid extracted from peat soils, which their negative groups can also adsorb ammonium. Peat soils is collected from Palangkaraya, Central Kalimantan and Rawa Pening, Central Jawa. Both peat soils has different genesis and chemical characteristics. The use of humic-coated urea (urea- humic) is expected to increase nitrogen adsorption by sugarcane planted in Psamment. Urea-humic is made by coating the urea by humic acid saturated by ammonium. The ammonium-saturated humic acid is made bi mixing the urea and humic acid until saturation reaches. The study will be done as long as 0ne year (10 months). First step is spent to produce urea-humic fertilizer and to test the characteristic of the fertilizers. Second step is consumed to find the accurate rate of the fertilizers for sugarcane applied in Psamments. The experiment is arranged in Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) with two type of urea fertilizers (urea and urea-humic) and six rates of fertilizer (100, 90, 80, 70, 60 and 0% of the recommended rate of N fertilizer). The recommendate rate is 160 kg N/ha. The result showed that urea-humic fertilizer increase the eficiency of N fertilization on sugarcane on Entisol (Psamments).
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