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Weed seed loss due to predation in Michigan maize fields

Weed seed loss due to predation in Michigan maize fields,10.1016/S0167-8809(97)00091-1,Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment,Paul C. Marino,Katherine L

Weed seed loss due to predation in Michigan maize fields   (Citations: 36)
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The influence of weed seed predation by invertebrates and vertebrates was examined in relation to distance from hedgerows in maize fields of southwestern Michigan. Experiments were conducted in spring and winter and included five common weed species, i.e., velvet-leaf (Abutilon theophrasti), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), common lamb's-quarters (Chenopodium album), fall panicum (Panicum dichotomiflorum), and yellow foxtail (Setaria lutescens). In the spring post-tillage study, treatments excluding invertebrates, vertebrates, invertebrates + vertebrates plus no exclusion controls were established at 5 and 100 m from the hedgerow. Seeds were placed into the field in trays filled with sterilized soil at low densities to avoid creating a ‘super stimulus’ for seed predators. The trays were placed in the field for 3–4 weeks and then placed in a heated greenhouse and seed loss was estimated from the number of seedlings that emerged. The design of the winter study was similar except that only control and vertebrate exclusion treatments were used and seeds were left in the field from December to mid-April. Significant differences among exclusion treatments were found in spring in terms of seed loss. Seed loss was lowest in the treatments that excluded both vertebrates + invertebrates and highest under no exclusion. There was some evidence of preferential predation by vertebrates upon seeds of A. retroflexus and C. album. In winter, significant seed predation by vertebrates on all species except A. retroflexus were detected. In both seasons, seed predation was highly patchy among and within fields and there was no consistent effect of distance from hedgerow.
Journal: Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment - AGR ECOSYST ENVIRON , vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 189-196, 1997
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    • ...between crop field edges and crop field interiors (Marino et al., 1997), among years (Cardina et al., 1996), or as a function of management practices (Brust and House, 1988)...
    • ...At the within-field scale, Marino et al. (1997) found the effect of post-dispersal seed predators to be patchy and not consistently related to the relative location of hedgerows...
    • ...This led Marino et al. (1997) to suggest that future studies of seed predation in agroecosystems should evaluate weed seed predation at a larger scale of analysis...
    • ...Part of the difficulty in detecting a landscape effect may be caused by the large amount of spatial variability in seed removal (Mittelbach and Gross, 1984; Dessaint et al., 1991; Thompson et al., 1991; Forcella et al., 1992; Marino et al., 1997)...
    • ...As such, this study arrives at the same conclusion as Marino et al. (1997) that the high variability in seed predation probably reflects realistic spatial and temporal variability in the foraging behaviors of seed predators in agroecosystems...
    • ...Relatively few studies have documented seed predation in agricultural systems (Pearson, 1964; Best and Beegle, 1977; Lund and Turpin, 1977; Brust and House, 1988; Manley, 1992; Cardina et al., 1996; Marino et al., 1997)...

    Fabián D. Menalledet al. Post-dispersal weed seed predation in Michigan crop fields as a functi...

    • ...Other studies showed the level of seed predation was comparable in no-till and conventional tillage maize (Zea mays L.) systems (Cardina et al., 1996) and near the field edges and the field interior (Marino et al., 1997)...

    R. S. Gallagheret al. Weed management through short-term improved fallows in tropical agroec...

    • ...This effect is only likely to occur during cold months, but seed predation by squirrels, crows and other granivores during the winter months represents a significant impact on the seed bank (Marino et al., 1997; McCormick and Meiners, 2000; Schreiner et al., 2000; Howe and Brown, 2001) and, as a result, many systems are likely to be impacted by this phenomenon...

    A. Marm Kilpatrick. The impact of thermoregulatory costs on foraging behaviour: a test wit...

    • ...Post-dispersal seed predators in agricultural fields are mostly large and small carabid beetles, mice, ants and crickets, with larger animals preferentially consuming larger seeds (Brust 1994; Brust and House 1988; Cardina et al. 1996; Cromar et al. 1999; Lund and Turpin 1977; Marino et al. 1997; Mittelbach and Gross 1984)...

    J. Cardinaet al. Seeds as the Target for Biological Control of Weeds

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