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MALARIA DI PULAU SAMOSIR, KABUPATEN TOBA SAMOSIR, PROPINSI SUMATRA UTARA,TAHUN 2003

MALARIA DI PULAU SAMOSIR, KABUPATEN TOBA SAMOSIR, PROPINSI SUMATRA UTARA,TAHUN 2003,Sekar Tuti,MJ Bangs,I Sumawinata,D Susapto,G Ginting,A Novri,M. Si

MALARIA DI PULAU SAMOSIR, KABUPATEN TOBA SAMOSIR, PROPINSI SUMATRA UTARA,TAHUN 2003  
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Beginning in April 2003, malaria investigations were conducted in the Lake Toba Samosir Island area in response to earlier reports of malaria outbreaks, a highly unusual occurrence and one of potential economic consequence to the area's tourism industry. Standard malariometric surveys (blood smear and spleen examination) were conducted in 6 suspected outbreak areas or localities considered receptive to malaria transmission. Simultaneous entomological surveys for mosquitoes were conducted in and around the suspected villages. Of six villages, three had confirmed active malaria (all Plasmodium falciparum) cases in younger age groups indicative of local transmission. Based on subsequent recommendations, mass drug administration (MDA) using standard chloroquine therapy, was conducted in 2 of the affected villages in July 2003. In September, a follow-up malaria epidemiological investigation was conducted to assess the situation and impact of MDA on disease prevalence. Malaria infections were still present approximately 3 months after MDA; whereas prevalence decreased in Pintusona Village (7 to 0.8%), malaria cases in Parmonangan Village increased from 3.5 to 7.6% over the same period. Our results showed clear evidence of endemic malaria transmission on Samosir Island. Six species of Anopheles mosquitoes (An. vagus, An. kochi, An. nivipes, An. sinensis, An. leucosphyrus and An. peditaeniatus) were identified from larval surveys in or near human habitation. Although none of the mosquito species have been implicated as important or efficient vectors in Sumatra, it is believed under ideal epidemiological conditions and high population densities; many of these species can transmit malaria. The apparent re-introduction of malaria on Samosir Island deserves greater attention to understanding the transmission dynamics, coupled with better disease surveillance and control measures to prevent further outbreaks.
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