Cognitive maps in rats and men

Cognitive maps in rats and men,10.1037/h0061626,Psychological Review,Edward C. Tolman

Cognitive maps in rats and men   (Citations: 1257)
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This paper is devoted to a description of experiments with rats, mostly at the author's laboratory, and to indicating the significance of these findings on rats for the clinical behavior of men. While all students agree as to the facts reported, they disagree on theory and explanation. 5 kinds of experiments (latent learning, vicarious trial and error, searching for the stimulus, hypotheses, and spatial orientation) are described and discussed. The conditions which favor (cognitive) narrow strip-maps and which favor broad comprehensive maps in rats and in men are considered. Narrow strip-maps seem to be indicated by (1) a damaged brain, (2) an inadequate arrangement of environmentally presented cues, (3) a surplus of repetitions on the original trained-on path, and (4) the presence of too strongly frustrating conditions. The fourth point is elaborated. It is contended that some of the psychological mechanisms which clinical psychologists and other students of personality have uncovered as factors underlying many individual and social maladjustments can be interpreted "as narrowings of our cognitive maps due to too strong motivations or to too intense frustrations."
Journal: Psychological Review - PSYCHOL REV , vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 189-208, 1948
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