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Effect of Vertical Shoot-Positioned, Smart-Dyson, and Geneva Double-Curtain Training Systems on Viognier Grape and Wine Composition

Effect of Vertical Shoot-Positioned, Smart-Dyson, and Geneva Double-Curtain Training Systems on Viognier Grape and Wine Composition,Bruce W. Zoecklein

Effect of Vertical Shoot-Positioned, Smart-Dyson, and Geneva Double-Curtain Training Systems on Viognier Grape and Wine Composition   (Citations: 2)
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Viognier grapes grown in northern Virginia and resultant wines were evaluated as a function of train- ing system. Treatments included vertical shoot-positioned (VSP), Smart-Dyson (SD), and Geneva double curtain (GDC), with vines of all treatments spaced 2.4 m apart in 3.0 m wide rows. In addition to increased cluster numbers and crop yield, GDC training generally increased fruit zone sunlight interception and fruit exposure, while it decreased cane pruning weights per meter of cordon, compared with SD and VSP. Crop adjustments were made between bloom and veraison in six seasons, to result in average yields of 10.5 kg/vine (GDC), 9.9 kg/vine (SD), and 6.0 kg/vine (VSP), with the lower SD canopy bearing 30 to 40% less crop than the corresponding upper SD canopy. Crop loads (yield/cane pruning weight) were generally between 4 and 12; GDC crop load approached 20 in three seasons, while SD approached 14 in one. Leaf area per crop ratio was determined one season and exceeded 1.8 m 2 /kg of fruit for all systems. Fruit was harvested at similar Brix values, with differences in berry weight, pH, titratable acidity, and malic and tartaric acids among treatments generally not significant. Volatile compounds were analyzed using headspace solid-phase microextraction GC-MS. Fruit showed consistent differ- ences in linalool, α-terpineol, β-damascenone, and n-hexanol concentrations among training systems. SD had the highest concentration of most free volatiles quantified in both juice and wines, while GDC wines frequently had the highest concentration of phenol-free glycosides. Triangle difference sensory testing demonstrated differences between GDC and SD in wine aroma and f lavor and between VSP and SD in f lavor. GDC wines generally had higher fruity and f loral aromas compared with the other systems.
Published in 2008.
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    • ...Many researchers have observed a positive correlation between sugar concentration and sunlight exposure of fruit (Cartechini and Palliotti, 1995; Crippen and Morrison, 1986a; Gao and Cahoon, 1994; Macaulay and Morris, 1993; Smart et al, 1988; Spayd et al, 2002), although some have reported no such effect (Cortell and Kennedy, 2006; Downey et al, 2004; Zoecklein et al, 2008)...

    Christina M. Bavougianet al. Training System Effects on Sunlight Penetration, Canopy Structure, Yie...

    • ...Since increased fruit exposure is generally considered favorable for the development of secondary metabolites (Reynolds et al, 1995a, 1996a, 1996b, 2004, 2007a, 2007b; Zoecklein et al, 1998a, 1998b, 2008), it is likely that odor-impact compounds are degraded due to high berry temperatures associated with full exposure in warm regions...

    David Sorokowskyet al. Impact of Training System on Fruit Composition and Sensory Attributes ...

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