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Plant and Environment Interactions Differences in the Effects of Simulated Sea Aerosol on Water Relations, Salt Content, and Leaf Ultrastructure of RockRose Plants

Plant and Environment Interactions Differences in the Effects of Simulated Sea Aerosol on Water Relations, Salt Content, and Leaf Ultrastructure of Ro

Plant and Environment Interactions Differences in the Effects of Simulated Sea Aerosol on Water Relations, Salt Content, and Leaf Ultrastructure of RockRose Plants  
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Schonherr, 1993), since the nature of the cuticle, particularly epicuticular waxes, plays an important role White-leaf rock-rose (Cistus albidus L.) and Montpellier rock-rose in the retention of aqueous sprays (Bukovac et al., 1981; (C. monspeliensis L.) plants were sprayed 2 to 3 min per day over a Jefree, 1986) and may differ depending on species (Tur- 7-d period, in an unheated plastic greenhouse, with different aqueous solutions containing deionized water alone (control); an anionic sur- unen and Huttunen, 1990). factant (sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate 82.5%, 50 mg L 1 ) (S1); a Previous papers have studied the anatomical and ul- solution simulating the composition of sea aerosol (S2); and a solution trastructural aspects of plants treated with simulated simulating sea aerosol with anionic surfactant (S3). White-leaf rock- sea aerosol both with and without surfactant, pointing rose was more sensitive to sea aerosol, showing greater leaf damage to a marked increase in the damaged stomata of treated and markedly decreased growth, and the presence of surfactant en- plants as compared with the controls (Gellini et al., hanced the phytotoxic effect leading to greater increases in mortality. 1987; Wolter et al., 1988; Bussotti et al., 1995), although Montpellier rock-rose did not appear to be more adversely affected with differences between species and consequently vari- when surfactant was used in combination with sea aerosol, and mani- ous degrees of sensitivity in productivity. However, the fested slight or less severe symptoms than white-leaf rock-rose. There action of salt and surfactants in plant water relations in was a significant increase in leaf turgor potential in the plants treated different species has rarely been reported. with both sea aerosol treatments by osmotic adjustment effect. The White-leaf rock-rose and Montpellier rock-rose plants decrease in photosynthesis level seems to be due to both stomatal and are native of lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, nonstomatal factors. The results of microscopical analysis of Mont- mainly southwestern Europe and northern Africa. Both pellier rock-rose plants show that sea aerosol treatment caused alter- ations in the chloroplast structure, reducing the starch grain and swell- species are evergreen woody shrubs and their blooms ing the thylakoid membranes. The results of this study indicated that are profuse and attractive. Native ornamental species Montpellier rock-rose was more tolerant to sea aerosol than white- of wild flora are very interesting options for use in land- leaf rock-rose, showing a lower reduction in plant growth and less scaping and gardening projects, since these plant species leaf damage, probably because of its ability to compartmentalize the are largely resistant to environmental stresses (Sanchez- toxic ions at the intracellular level.
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