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Urinary Bladder Catheterization of Female Mice and Rats

Urinary Bladder Catheterization of Female Mice and Rats,ANASTASIA L. SOWERS,JUDITH A. DAVIS,LOWREY L. RHODES

Urinary Bladder Catheterization of Female Mice and Rats   (Citations: 1)
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® polyethylene (PE) tubing (Clay Adams, Parsippany, NJ). Adult female rats can be catheterized with #50 PE tubing (2.9 French), a 3.5-French Tom Cat Cath- eter (Sherwood Medical, St. Louis, MO), or a No. 4 Coude urethral catheter (C. M. Bard Co., Summit, NJ) that has a bend to the tip of the catheter. This bend facilitates passage of the catheter through the urethra (2). A guide-wire can be threaded through the PE tubing to increase the rigidity of the catheter. Care should be taken that the tip of the guide-wire does not extend past the end of the catheter. Guide-wires can be made of stainless-steel surgical wire (Ethicon, Inc. Somerville, NJ) and coated with a water-soluble lubricant to ease placement and re- moval from the PE tubing. The diameters of the urinary catheter should be the minimum that can be inserted into the bladder and still prevent urinary leakage around the catheter. PE cath- eters should be sterilized by using ethylene oxide. Procedures for urinary catheterization are similar for female mice and rats. Rats and mice were anesthetized by using intraperitoneal ketamine hydrochloride (50 mg/kg; Fort Dodge Laboratory, Fort Dodge, IA) and xylazine (10 mg/kg; The Butler Co., Columbus, OH). Although the dose of ketamine and xylazine used was lower than that typically recommended for mice, it was sufficient for placement of a urinary catheter. A bland ophthalmic ointment was applied to both eyes. Aseptic and atraumatic technique should be used during place- ment of the urinary catheter. Prior to insertion of the urinary catheter, the external urinary orifice was gently cleansed by us- ing a chlorhexidine solution. Sterility is achieved by using sterile surgical gloves and a sterile catheter. To minimize trauma to the bladder wall due to excessive catheter length, the distance from the external urinary orifice to the neck of the bladder should be estimated. The approximate distance from the external urinary orifice to the neck of the bladder for a 20-g female mouse is 10 mm and that for 200-g female rats is 17 mm. The ends of the catheter should be checked for smoothness so that sharp edges do not abrade the urethral lining. A small amount of water- soluble lubricant should be placed on the external urinary orifice, and a thin coat should cover the surface of the urinary catheter. Proper positioning of the animal is the most important key to success. First, place the anesthetized animal in ventral recum- bency on a flat surface. Second, grasp the tail in one hand and suspend the animal with the head pointing downward. Third, gently bend the tail backwards perpendicular to the body to ex- Abstract _ Catheterization of the urinary bladder of rats and mice is necessary for a variety of clinical and experimental reasons. The anatomy of the female mouse and rat is unique in that the urinary orifice is external and just anterior to the vaginal opening. This characteristic makes the bladder of these species easier to catheterize than that of other species. Methods cited in the litera- ture do not adequately describe techniques that facilitate ease of urinary bladder catheterization (1). We describe a simple technique for urinary catheterization in adult female mice and rats.
Published in 1999.
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