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A novel approach for precise simulation of the EMG signal detected by surface electrodes

A novel approach for precise simulation of the EMG signal detected by surface electrodes,D. Farina,R. Merletti

A novel approach for precise simulation of the EMG signal detected by surface electrodes   (Citations: 84)
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    • ...Depending on the thickness of the volume conductor (muscle, fat and skin layers), these signals are filtered by spatial transfer function [17] and added to give a total potential distribution on the skin surface, called output plan [4]...
    • ...The recorded EMG is finally obtained by filtering the output plan with an electrode transfer function [17]...

    Hua Caoet al. Optimization of input parameters of an EMG-force model in constant and...

    • ...Biological tissues have been considered in quasi-stationary conditions in a number of papers on surface EMG simulation during voluntary contractions [4], [5]...
    • ...For a plane layer model of the volume conductor such effects can be studied analytically [4]...
    • ...Transforming by Fourier the space variables into the spatial frequency variables , (as in [4]), we obtain (4), shown at the bottom of the next page, where are the transversal and longitudinal muscle conductivities, respectively, and are the transversal...
    • ...The mathematical problem in the case of a planar volume conductor constituted by one layer (only muscle) insulated at and infinite for is given by adding to (2) an impulsive Neumann condition at [i.e., isolation conditions at the surface except for the stimulation point ]. Transforming by Fourier the space variables into the spatial frequency variables , (as in [4]), we obtain the following problem:...
    • ...Transforming by Fourier the space variables into the spatial frequency variables , (as in [4]), we obtain (14), shown at the bottom of the page...
    • ...The sum of the potential at the three sample points under the simulated electrode was considered to simulate the potential detected by an electrode, neglecting (as in [4]) the perturbation effect of the electrode on the surrounding potential (the simulation of which would require the solution of a mixed boundary value problem)...
    • ...The solution method is based on Fourier transforming in the planes parallel to the surface, as in [4]...

    Luca Mesinet al. Distribution of Electrical Stimulation Current in a Planar Multilayer ...

    • ...In this research the representation of sEMG is based on extensive research by Farina et. al [10], [11], in which they have developed model where sEMG is represented as the interference pattern of all the detected motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) from the surface of the skin by the electrode...
    • ...Noting further on this hypothesis in light of well known available models of surface EMG [10], [11] it is enabling that the MUAPs originating at deeper levels or farther points from the electrode sites have relatively lower amplitude and widening in the time domain and hence appear to shift towards the lower side of the frequency spectrum...

    Vijay Pal Singhet al. Classification of low-level finger contraction from single channel sur...

    • ...ied:isotropic,homogeneous,andinfinitemedium[5],[30],[31]; multilayer models for planar [14] and cylindrical [3], [19], [24] volume conductors; volume conductors with local [33] and distributed[35]inhomogeneity;bipinnatemuscle[32];musclewith fibers inclined with respect to the detection surface [32]; triangular muscle [35]...
    • ...As in [14], planar layers of muscle, fat, and skin tissues are modeled...
    • ...The generation, propagation (at velocity v), and extinction of the intracellular action potential was modeled as in [14]...
    • ...The simulation of a single-fiber action potential (SFAP) from a point electrode was obtained as in [14], exploiting the space invariance of the model and expressing the surface potential as the inverse transform of the product of the volume conductor transfer function with the Fourier transform of the transmembrane current density (16)...
    • ...It is worth noting that, as the model considered here is not invariant in the direction transversal to the fibers (whereas the models in [14] and [19] were also invariant in such a direction), the shape of the electrodes cannot be studied by introducing a spatial transfer function for the electrode (which was possible for the model proposed in [14] and [19])...
    • ...It is worth noting that, as the model considered here is not invariant in the direction transversal to the fibers (whereas the models in [14] and [19] were also invariant in such a direction), the shape of the electrodes cannot be studied by introducing a spatial transfer function for the electrode (which was possible for the model proposed in [14] and [19])...
    • ...Finally, the inclination of an array of spatial filters with respect to the fibers cannot be obtained by a simple change of variable in the spatial frequencies, which is possible for volume conductors which are invariant also in the direction transversal to the fibers (as those considered in [14] and [19])...
    • ...The approach proposed for the solution of the problem is obtained by extending the results of previous papers [14], [19], [34]...
    • ...Therefore, a complete generation model was obtained in the space‐time domain by inverting the product of the volume conductor transfer function with the Fourier transform of the transmembrane current density [14]...
    • ...The generation of surface EMG detected by point electrodes is quite fast (computation of the impulse response being the most time-consuming operation), even if it is much slower than previously developed analytical models with a simpler description of the volume conductor [7], [14], [19]...

    Luca Mesin. Simulation of Surface EMG Signals for a Multilayer Volume Conductor Wi...

    • ...Besides, the signals from subjects with high presence of fat tissue were also not considered for analysis, because the large fat layer in these subjects is reflected by stronger volume conductor effects, resulting in shape changes on CV that are difficult to predict [14]...

    Sauro Salomoniet al. Gender differences in muscle fatigue of the biceps brachii and influen...

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