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Keywords
(7)
Analog Circuits
Building Block
Circuit Design
Circuit Synthesis
Indexing Terms
Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
Transfer Function
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A systematic approach to circuit design and analysis: classification of twoVCCS circuits
A systematic approach to circuit design and analysis: classification of twoVCCS circuits,10.1109/81.774226,IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems
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A systematic approach to circuit design and analysis: classification of twoVCCS circuits
(
Citations: 4
)
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Eric A. M. Klumperink
This paper discusses a systematic approach to the design and analysis of circuits, using a transconductor or voltage controlled current source (VCCS) as a building block. It is shown that two independent Kirchhoff relations among the VCCS voltages and currents play a crucial role in establishing a unique
transfer function
in twoport circuits with two VCCSs. A class of two VCCS circuits is defined, which can be subdivided into three main classes and 14 subclasses, based on different imposable sets of two Kirchhoff relations. The classification is useful for
circuit synthesis
and analysis, as it reveals all the basically different ways to exploit two VCCS's, and allows for a unified analysis of classes of circuits. To exemplify this, all complementary metaloxidesemiconductor (CMOS) VI converter kernels, based on two matched MOS transistor (MOST)VCCSs, are generated and analyzed with respect to distortion. It is shown that dozens of published transconductor circuits can be classified in only four classes, with essentially different distortion behavior
Journal:
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems Iregular Papers  IEEE TRANS CIRCUIT SYSTI
, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 810819, 1999
DOI:
10.1109/81.774226
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Citation Context
(4)
...We will then compare the NSNR of virtually all VI kernels that we are aware of, generated based on [7]‐[
9
] and partly on [10]...
...First, simple 3terminal kernels are introduced in Section IV and compared in Section V. Then all five different classes of “composite VI kernels” [
9
] combining two 3terminal VI kernels are discussed in Section VI and compared in Section I. Section VIII presents conclusions...
...Actually, there are more ways of implementing 4terminal transconductor starting from 3terminal ones [
9
], and we will return to this subject later when we discuss composite VI kernels in Section VI. For now it suffices to state that it is possible to realize a 4terminal transconductor starting from 3terminal transconductors and we focus on the question how we can make 3terminal transconductors...
...It can be shown that there exist only a limited number of different ways to combine two VCCS blocks to create a twoport network with a welldefined transfer function [
9
]...
...The circuit can be classified in 12 classes of circuits [
9
], based on the set of two Kirchhoff relations that is forced by the interconnection pattern of the VCCSs, and their connection to the signal source and load...
...In case of transconductors, five classes with useful behavior result5 [
9
], represented in Fig. 10. The name of each class refers to the two variables that are being forced by Kirchhoff equations (e.g., means that a sumvoltage and differencevoltage is forced)...
...For other options see [7] and [
9
] Fig. 10. Five different ways of combining two transconductors by forcing a different set of two Kirchhoff relations, indicated in the class name...
...Fig. 10(b) shows a circuit, in which the input voltage source forces a socalled “primary” VCCS voltage [
9
], while the sum of the VCCSvoltages is forced equal to . This class is strongly related to the previous one, but the full input voltage swing is now applied to both VCCSs, and it has a singleended input...
...For some wellknown transconductors, e.g., [34]‐[46], examples of the decomposition are given in [
9
] and a more extensive discussion can be found in [7]...
Eric A. M. Klumperink
,
et al.
Systematic comparison of HF CMOS transconductors
...So called “treegraphs” [
4
] are used as a starting point...
Eric A. M. Klumperink
,
et al.
Finding all elementary circuits exploiting transconductance
...This is because unconnected graph branches do not serve any function in a circuit (open branch: undetermined voltage and related current; open o r branch: zero current; open branch: input not sensed; so none of them contribute to Kirchhoff relations to force a finite transactance 9 (see also [
8
])...
...These expressions can also be derived in a systematic way from considerations regarding different possible sets of Kirchhoff relations that can be forced in circuits with two VCCSs [
8
]...
Eric A. M. Klumperink
,
et al.
Finding all elementary circuits exploiting transconductance
...First a generalization step is made: a MOS transistor is considered as a Voltage Controlled Current Source [
4
] (VCCS, see fig. 1)...
F. Bruccoleri
,
et al.
Generating all 2transistor circuits leads to new wideband CMOS LNAs
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(
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C. s Park
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Conference:
IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems  ISCAS
, 1986
Sort by:
Citations
(4)
Systematic comparison of HF CMOS transconductors
(
Citations: 26
)
Eric A. M. Klumperink
,
Bram Nauta
Journal:
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems Ii: Analog and Digital Signal Processing
, vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 728741, 2003
Finding all elementary circuits exploiting transconductance
(
Citations: 13
)
Eric A. M. Klumperink
,
Federico Bruccoleri
,
Bram Nauta
Conference:
IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems  ISCAS
, pp. 667670, 2001
Finding all elementary circuits exploiting transconductance
(
Citations: 1
)
Eric A. M. Klumperink
,
Federico Bruccoleri
,
Bram Nauta
Journal:
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems Ii: Analog and Digital Signal Processing
, vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 10391053, 2001
Generating all 2transistor circuits leads to new wideband CMOS LNAs
(
Citations: 3
)
F. Bruccoleri
,
E. A. M. Klumperink
,
B. Nauta
Journal:
Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering  J MICROMECHANIC MICROENGINEER
, 2000