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A Cross-Media Presence Questionnaire: The ITC-Sense of Presence Inventory

A Cross-Media Presence Questionnaire: The ITC-Sense of Presence Inventory,10.1162/105474601300343612,Teleoperators and Virtual Environments,Jane Lessi

A Cross-Media Presence Questionnaire: The ITC-Sense of Presence Inventory   (Citations: 164)
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The presence research community would benefit from a reliable and valid cross- media presence measure that allows results from different laboratories to be com- pared and a more comprehensive knowledge base to be developed. The ITC-Sense of Presence Inventory (ITC-SOPI) is a new state questionnaire measure whose de- velopment has been informed by previous research on the determinants of pres- ence and current self-report measures. It focuses on users' experiences of media, with no reference to objective system parameters. More than 600 people com- pleted the ITC-SOPI following an experience with one of a range of noninteractive and interactive media. Exploratory analysis (principal axis factoring) revealed four factors: Sense of Physical Space, Engagement, Ecological Validity, and Negative Ef- fects. Relations between the factors and the consistency of the factor structure with others reported in the literature are discussed. Preliminary analyses described here demonstrate that the ITC-SOPI is reliable and valid, but more rigorous testing of its psychometric properties and applicability to interactive virtual environments is re- quired. Subject to satisfactory confirmatory analyses, the ITC-SOPI will offer re- searchers using a range of media systems a tool with which to measure four facets of a media experience that are putatively related to presence.
Journal: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments - Presence , vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 282-297, 2001
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    • ...The interactivity of video game systems can heighten both spatial presence experiences as well as the motivation to use the system ‘‘because it makes exposure entertaining’’ (Klimmt & Vorderer, 2003, p. 354).,Links between spatial presence, social presence, and enjoyment have been suggested (Klimmt & Vorderer, 2003).,Presence was measured using the spatial presence subscale of the ITC-Sense of Presence Inventory (ITC-SOPI: Lessiter, Freeman, Keogh, & Davidoff, 2001).,As found in Experiment 1 and in past research (Klimmt & Vorderer, 2003; Skalski et al., 2011), increased feelings of presence result in increased enjoyment; therefore we predict that, as shown in Figure 8:,Consistent with previous research (Klimmt et al., 2007; Klimmt & Vorderer, 2003; Skalski et al., 2011), interactivity significantly and positively predicted spatial presence, perceived reality, and enjoyment.,This finding is consistent with past research and theorized relationships (Klimmt et al., 2007; Klimmt & Vorderer, 2003; Skalski et al., 2011).,Klimmt and Vorderer (2003) define spatial presence, social presence (being together with a mediated person), and copresence (being present in a mediated room with a mediated person)...

    Daniel M. Shaferet al. Spatial Presence and Perceived Reality as Predictors of Motion-Based V...

    • ...The Slater-Usoh-Steed (SUS) and Witmer-Singer (PQ) questionnaires were popular early methods for assessing users’ subjective sense of presence in immersive virtual environments (Slater, Usoh, & Steed, 1994; Witmer & Singer, 1998), along with the ITC-Sense of Presence Inventory (Lessiter, Freeman, Keogh, & Davidoff, 2001), which was developed to accommodate desktop VR and other nonimmersive systems...

    Victoria Interranteet al. Correlations Between Physiological Response, Gait, Personality, and Pr...

    • ...In order to gauge participants’ immersion in the film, levels of spatial presence, engagement, ecological validity and negative effects were measured using the ITC-Sense of Presence Inventory (Lessiter et al, 2001)...

    Louise Fryeret al. Cinematic language and the description of film: keeping AD users in th...

    • ...As surveyed in Lessiter et al. (2001), VR researchers have found it convenient to conceptualize the various determinants underlying presence to be either objective characteristics of the “media” or subjective “user characteristics” (for example, Freeman & Avons 2000; IJsselsteijn & Riva 2003; Slater &Usoh 1994; Slater et al...

    Jaeyong Chunget al. Temporal Presence Variation in Immersive Computer Games

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