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Wake vortex transport in proximity to the ground

Wake vortex transport in proximity to the ground,10.1109/DASC.2000.886942,David W. Hamilton,Fred H. Proctor

Wake vortex transport in proximity to the ground   (Citations: 6)
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A sensitivity study for aircraft wake vortex transport has been conducted using a validated large eddy simulation (LES) model. The study assumes neutrally stratified and nonturbulent environments and includes the consequences of the ground. The numerical results show that the nondimensional lateral transport is primarily influenced by the magnitude of the ambient crosswind and is insensitive to aircraft type. In most of the simulations, the ground effect extends the lateral position of the downwind vortex about one initial vortex spacing (bo) in the downstream direction. Further extension by as much as one bo occurs when the downwind vortex remains “in ground effect” (IGE) for relatively long periods of time. Results also show that a layer-averaged ambient wind velocity can be used to bound the time for lateral transport of wake vortices to ensure safe operations on a parallel runway
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    • ...The wakes are expected to initially drift outward at approximately 3 kts for Large category aircraft (e.g., B737) and 4 kts for Heavy category aircraft (e.g., DC10) [18-21]...
    • ...There are also large scale eddy simulation results [18]that show that for prediction of how long a wake will take to transport to a specific distance, the wake self-transport contribution is overwhelmed by wind transport and ground effects, resulting in smaller wake transport distances for a given time...
    • ...According to Hamilton and Proctor [18], a wake vortex is considered “in ground effect” (IGE) when its altitude is within one initial vortex separation (¾ of one wingspan) above the ground...

    Anand D. Mundraet al. Potential benefits of a Paired Approach procedure to closely spaced pa...

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