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Interaction Effects in Parafoveal Letter Recognition

Interaction Effects in Parafoveal Letter Recognition,10.1038/226177a0,Nature,H. Bouma

Interaction Effects in Parafoveal Letter Recognition   (Citations: 270)
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WHEN a person reads, his eye movements consist of fixational pauses separated by quick jumps along the lines. What the eye picks up during a pause is largely unknown, as is the way in which the information from successive retinal images is integrated. Properties of the visual system, as well as the reader's knowledge of the language, must be relevant.
Journal: Nature , vol. 226, no. 5241, pp. 177-178, 1970
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    • ...1 for a review) since Bouma formally described crowding four decades ag...

    Anirvan S Nandyet al. Saccade-confounded image statistics explain visual crowding

    • ...If targets are more likely to be lost when they are crowded by nearby distractors, then crowding (e.g., Bouma, 1970)—and not object speed per se—may be responsible for reduced tracking performance as speed increases (Franconeri, Jonathan, & Scimeca, 2010)...

    Michael Tombuet al. Tracking planets and moons: mechanisms of object tracking revealed wit...

    • ... Crowding is a more complex peripheral defici...

    Eero P Simoncelliet al. Metamers of the ventral stream

    • ...extraction.Visual resolution Perceiving an object accurately in peripheral vision becomes exceedingly difficult when similar objects are nearby—a phenomenon known as visual crowding (Bouma, 1970; Stuart & Burian, 1962; Townsend, Taylor, & Brown, 1971)...
    • ...The degree of crowding increases with eccentricity (Bouma, 1970) and is more pronounced in the upper visual field (UVF), relative to the lower visual field (LVF; He, Cavanagh, & Intriligator, 1996)...
    • ...Crowding may result from a number of mechanisms: contour integration (Flom, Weymouth, & Kahneman, 1963); lateral interactions (Bouma, 1970); insufficiently small integration fields (Pelli, Palomares, & Majaj, 2004); coarse (He et al., 1996), unfocused, or mislocalized attention (Strasburger, 2005); or averaging (pooling) of target–flanker featural information (Parkes, Lund, Angelucci, Solomon, & Morgan, 2001)...
    • ...Crowding has a deleterious effect on many perceptual tasks: limiting letter recognition (Bouma, 1970 ;Y u, Cheung, Legge, & Chung, 2007) and reading speed (Chung, 2002; Pelli et al., 2007), slowing eye movements during search (Vlaskamp & Hooge, 2006), impairing the precision of grasp orientation (Bulakowski, Post, & Whitney, 2009), and driving recognition deficits in some observers with disorders of vision, including strabismic ...

    Paul F. Bulakowskiet al. Reexamining the possible benefits of visual crowding: dissociating cro...

    • ...However, elements near each other in the periphery impair the ability to detect properties of those elements, a phenomenon known as crowding (e.g., Bouma 1970; Toet and Levi 1992)...
    • ...Finally, crowding is stronger when a target, together with Xankers, is located further in the visual periphery (see e.g., Bouma 1970; Butler and Currie 1986; Polat and Sagi 1993; Huckauf et al. 1999)...

    Jelmer P. de Vrieset al. Saccadic selection and crowding in visual search: stronger lateral mas...

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