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Constants across cultures in the face and emotion

Constants across cultures in the face and emotion,10.1037/h0030377,Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,Paul Ekman,Wallace V. Friesen

Constants across cultures in the face and emotion   (Citations: 521)
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Investigated the question of whether any facial expressions of emotion are universal. Recent studies showing that members of literate cultures associated the same emotion concepts with the same facial behaviors could not demonstrate that at least some facial expressions of emotion are universal; the cultures compared had all been exposed to some of the same mass media presentations of facial expression, and these may have taught the people in each culture to recognize the unique facial expressions of other cultures. To show that members of a preliterate culture who had minimal exposure to literate cultures would associate the same emotion concepts with the same facial behaviors as do members of Western and Eastern literate cultures, data were gathered in New Guinea by telling 342 Ss a story, showing them a set of 3 faces, and asking them to select the face which showed the emotion appropriate to the story. Ss were members of the Fore linguistic-cultural group, which up until 12 yr. ago was an isolated, Neolithic, material culture. Results provide evidence in support of the hypothesis. (30 ref.)
Journal: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology - PSP , vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 124-129, 1971
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