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The Satisfaction With Life Scale

The Satisfaction With Life Scale,10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13,Journal of Personality Assessment,Ed Diener,ROBERT A. EMMONS,Randy Larsen,Sharon Griffin

The Satisfaction With Life Scale   (Citations: 2473)
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This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does niot tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal re- liability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SW~S 1s suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed. Recent years have seen an increase in need to ask the person for their overall research on subjective well-being (Dien- evaluation of their life, rather than sum- er, 1984). In this research, three separa- ming across their satisfaction wit11 spe- ble components of subjective well-being cific domains, to obtain a measure of have been identified: positive affect, overall life satisfaction. As Tatarkiewicz negative affect, and life satisfaction (An- (1976) wrote, ". . .happiness requires drews & Withey, 1976). The first two total satisfaction, that is satisfiiction compodents refer to the affective, emo- with life as a whole" (p. 8). tional aspects of the construct; the latter Scales of general life satisfaction have to the cognitive-judgmental aspects, A1- been, developed. Unfortunately, many though several scales for the assessment of these scales consist only of a single of affect exist (Bradburn, 1969; Kam- item. Such single item scales have a mann & Flett, 1983; Kozma & Stones, number of problems associated with 1980), the measurement of general life them (see Diener, 1984, for a detailed satisfaction has received less attention. discussion of these measures). Also, Life satisfaction refers to a cognitive, many of the existing scales have been judgmental process, Shin and Johnspn designed and are appropriate only for (19'78) define life satisfaction as "a glo- geriatric populations, such as Neugarten, bal assessment of a person's quality of Havighurst, and Tobin's (1961) Life Sat- life according to his chosen criteria" (p. isfaction Index and LawtonYs(l975) Phila- 478). Judgments of satisfaction are de- delphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale. pendent upon a comparison of one's cir- Furthermore, many of these scalles do cumstances with what is thought to be not appear to be tapping solely the an appropriate standard. It is important judgmental quality of life satisfaction. to point out that the judgment of how For example, the Life Satisfaction In- satisfied people are with their present dex, despite its name, includes a factor state of affairs is based on a comparison of zest vs. apathy (Neugarten ~:t al., with a standard which each individual 1961). Thus, these scales are not, strictly sets for him or herself; it is not externally speaking, measures only of life. saitisfac- imposed. It is a hallmark of the subjec- tion, tive well-being area that it centers on the Thus, there exists a need for a )multi- person's own judgments, not upon some item scale to measure life satisfaction as criterion which is jpdged to be impor- a cognitive-judgmental process. The pur- tanr by the researcher (Dienes, 1984). pose of the present studies is to design For example, although health, energy, and partially validate such a measure, and so forth may be desirable, particular the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SINLS). individuals may place different values The scale is designed around the idea on them. It is far this reason that ive that one mmt ask subjects for an oiverall
Journal: Journal of Personality Assessment - J PERSONAL ASSESS , vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 71-75, 1985
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    • ...Growing attention to this topic has encouraged the proliferation of several definitions and measures of it (e.g., Bradburn 1969; Diener et al. 1985; Dupuy 1978; Lyubomirsky and Lepper 1999)...
    • ...Scale (SWLS; Diener et al. 1985), assesses the concept of life satisfaction by measuring individuals’ global judgement of their lives and, thus, the cognitive component of subjective well-being...
    • ...The five items of the SWLS (Diener et al. 1985) were answered according to a 7-point scale, ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree...

    António Caetanoet al. Psychometric Properties of a Portuguese Version of the Subjective Happ...

    • ...The Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener et al. 1985) was administered to measure global satisfaction with life...
    • ...In the instrument development study, the authors reported good internal consistency (a = .87) and a two week test–retest reliability (r = .82) (Diener et al. 1985)...

    Ryan D. Duffyet al. Calling and Life Satisfaction Among Undergraduate Students: Investigat...

    • ...SWB includes both a cognitive and an affective component (Arhaud-Day et al. 2005; Diener et al. 1985)...
    • ...Costa Galinha and Pais-Riberio 2008), for instance the 5-item Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) (Diener et al. 1985; Pavot and Diener 1993)...
    • ...CSWB was measured with the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) (Diener et al. 1985) that requested the participants to rate their agreement with the following five statements: ‘‘In most ways my life is close to my ideal,’’ ‘‘So far I have achieved the important things I want in life,’’ ‘‘The conditions of my life are excellent,’’ ‘‘I am satisfied with my life,’’ and ‘‘If I could live my life over again, I would change almost nothing’’...

    Amelie GambleTommy Garlinget al. The Relationships Between Life Satisfaction, Happiness, and Current Mo...

    • ...Adolescents answered Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin's (1985) five-item Satisfaction with Life Scale, on a seven-point rating scale, ranging from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree...

    Andreas Hadjaret al. Parent-child value similarity and subjective well-being in the context...

    • ...The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larson, & Griffin, 1985) contains five items rated on a 7-point scale [1 = “Strongly disagree”; 7 = “Strongly agree”] that measure domain-free global life satisfaction (eg, “If I could live my life over, I would change almost nothing”)...

    Amber L. Bushet al. An evaluation of the brief multidimensional measure of religiousness/s...

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