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Arm and Hand Movement Control

Arm and Hand Movement Control,Stefan Schaal

Arm and Hand Movement Control   (Citations: 10)
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The control of arm and hand movements in human and nonhuman primates has fascinated researchers in psychology, neuroscience, robotics, and numerous re-lated areas. Movement appears effortless to the uninitiated observer, only when trying to duplicate such skills with artificial systems or when examining the un-derlying neural substrate, one discovers a surprising complexity that, so far, has prevented us from understanding the biological implementation, how to repair neural damage, and how to create human-like robots with a human level of movement skills. Research towards an understanding of motor control can be approached on different levels of abstraction, for instance, by examining the biochemical mecha-nisms of neuronal firing, the representational power of single and populations of neurons, neuroanatomical pathways, the biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system, the computational principles of biological feedback control and learning, or the interaction of perception and action. No matter which level of inquiry is chosen, however, ultimately we need to solve the "reverse engineering" problem of how the properties of each level correlate with the characteristics of skillful behavior. Motor control of arm and hand is an excellent example of the difficul-ties that arise in the reverse engineering problem. Behavioral research has dis-covered a variety of regularities in this movement domain, but it is hard to de-termine on which level they arise. Moreover, most of these regularities were ex-amined in isolated arm or hand movement studies, while, as detailed later, the coordination of arm and hand is a coupled process where hand and arm move-ment influence each other. In this article, we will discuss some of the most prominent regularities of arm and hand control, and examine suggestions where they may come from, with a particular focus on computational and neural net-work models. It will become apparent that an interesting competition exists be-tween explanations sought on a neural, biomechanical, perceptual, and compu-tational level that has created a large amount of controversy in the research community over the years.
Published in 2002.
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    • ...These characteristics encode observations of how realistic arm motions are performed by humans [25]...

    Marcelo Kallmannet al. A skill-based motion planning framework for humanoids

    • ...Inspired by the idea of the movement primitives (Schaal 2002; Schaal et al. 2003), we assumed that the experts have learnt the control of the corresponding subtasks separately, and later these experts were coordinated by a higher level critic to control a more complex task under new conditions...

    Mehran Emadi Andaniet al. MODEM: a multi-agent hierarchical structure to model the human motor c...

    • ...In robotics, the motor control of arm and hand is a paradigmatic example of the difficulties that arise in the reverse engineering problem and the use of bio-inspired techniques in intelligent systems design (Schaal, 2002)...
    • ...Despite the importance of the topic, the large body of available behavioural and neuroscientific data, and the vast number of studies done, the issues of how primates and humans learn to display reaching and grasping behaviour still remains highly controversial (Schaal, 2002; Shadmehr, 2002)...

    Gianluca Masseraet al. Evolution of prehension ability in an anthropomorphic neurorobotic arm

    • ...In robotics, the design of adaptive robotic systems able to perform complex object manipulation tasks is one of the most important research issues (Schaal, 2002)...
    • ...Despite the importance of the topic, the large body of available behavioural and neuropsychological data, and the vast number of studies based a variety of AI and neural network techniques, the issues of how primates and humans learn to display reaching and grasping behaviour still remains highly controversial (Schaal, 2002; Shadmehr, 2002)...

    Gianluca Masseraet al. Developing a Reaching Behaviour in an simulated Anthropomorphic Roboti...

    • ...The Indeterminacy Problem and kinematic invariants have become key indicators of fundamental organisational principles in the CNS (Schaal 2003)...
    • ...In this section, we link our results and our behavioural overview in Sect.1 to neural connections such as those overviewed by Arbib (2003), Schaal (2003) and many others...
    • ...The regularities or invariants have become a hallmark towards the understanding of perceptuomotor control as indicators of fundamental organisational principles in the CNS (Schaal 2003)...
    • ...The regularities in Cartesian space of symmetric bell-shaped velocity profiles and approximate straight lines mentioned in the Introduction for human movement have also been found in monkeys (Schaal 2003)...

    M. K. Weiret al. Revealing non-analytic kinematic shifts in smooth goal-directed behavi...

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