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Discrimination and learning without awareness: A methodological survey and evaluation

Discrimination and learning without awareness: A methodological survey and evaluation,10.1037/h0041622,Psychological Review,Charles W. Eriksen

Discrimination and learning without awareness: A methodological survey and evaluation   (Citations: 146)
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Experimental approaches to discrimination, performance and learning without awareness (consciousness) are surveyed. Methodological and definitional problems are emphasized. Equating awareness with verbal reports is criticized and it is shown that individual variations exist in the range between chance guesses and confidence thresholds. Better than chance discrimination will of necessity occur below an absolute threshold defined in terms of a 50% reacting point. The GSR is no more accurate than verbal reports below the threshold, while above it the GSR does not achieve 100% accuracy. A multiple concurrent response model with both responses independently but imperfectly correlated with the stimulus is proposed. The assumption of subliminal discrimination is not required. From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:3CH79E.
Journal: Psychological Review - PSYCHOL REV , vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 279-300, 1960
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    • ...A central argument against the subjective threshold model is that subjective reports are likely to be contaminated by response bias (e.g., Eriksen 1960)...
    • ...In an insightful review of the literature on nonconscious discrimination and learning, Eriksen (1960) succinctly summarizes methodological requirements for eliciting and recording verbal reports:...
    • ...With respect to the second use, Eriksen (1960) points out the problem of response bias in experiments that rely on conWdence judgments for the assessment of conscious...
    • ...Given this narrow deWnition of conscious sequence knowledge, a verbal report of the response sequence can be regarded as a sensitive (exhaustive) direct test—provided one observes the strict methodological requirements outlined, for example, by Eriksen (1960)...

    Dennis Rüngeret al. Defining consciousness in the context of incidental sequence learning:...

    • ...Until relatively recently, many authors were sceptical about the possibility that processing of visual input can occur at unconscious levels (Eriksen, 1960; Holender, 1986)...

    Ulrich Ansorgeet al. Revisiting the metacontrast dissociation: Comparing sensitivity across...

    • ...Worldly discrimination theory Perhaps the simplest theory that still impacts the experimental literature is that any mental state that can express its content in behaviour is conscious; thus, a person shows they are consciously aware of a feature in the world when they can discriminate it with choice behaviour[1,2].Thistheoryoftenmakesuseofsignal-detection theory (SDT), a statistical framework for quantifying the ...

    Anil K. Sethet al. Measuring consciousness: relating behavioural and neurophysiological a...

    • ...Methodological challenges, too, associated with studying the unconscious have no doubt contributed to the absence of theorizing its role in shaping desire (Eriksen 1960; Reingold and Merikle 1990)...

    Adam Isaiah Green. Erotic habitus: toward a sociology of desire

    • ...(Eriksen, 1960; Hannula, Simons, & Cohen, 2005,...

    Stefan Wiens. Concepts of visual consciousness and their measurement

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