Discrimination and learning without awareness: A methodological survey and evaluation
Experimental approaches to discrimination, performance and learning without awareness (consciousness) are surveyed. Methodological and definitional problems are emphasized. Equating awareness with verbal reports is criticized and it is shown that individual variations exist in the range between chance guesses and confidence thresholds. Better than chance discrimination will of necessity occur below an absolute threshold defined in terms of a 50% reacting point. The GSR is no more accurate than verbal reports below the threshold, while above it the GSR does not achieve 100% accuracy. A multiple concurrent response model with both responses independently but imperfectly correlated with the stimulus is proposed. The assumption of subliminal discrimination is not required. From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:3CH79E.