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Do 15-Month-Old Infants Understand False Beliefs?

Do 15-Month-Old Infants Understand False Beliefs?,10.1126/science.1107621,Science,Kristine H. Onishi,Renée Baillargeon

Do 15-Month-Old Infants Understand False Beliefs?   (Citations: 213)
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For more than two decades, researchers have argued that young children do not understand mental states such as beliefs. Part of the evidence for this claim comes from preschoolers' failure at verbal tasks that require the understanding that others may hold false beliefs. Here, we used a novel nonverbal task to examine 15-month-old infants' ability to predict an actor's behavior on the basis of her true or false belief about a toy's hiding place. Results were positive, supporting the view that, from a young age, children appeal to mental states-goals, perceptions, and beliefs-to explain the behavior of others.
Journal: Science , vol. 308, no. 5719, pp. 255-258, 2005
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    • ...To this end, it may, for example, be expedient to remove from ToM tasks a requirement to make a verbal response (Onishi & Baillargeon, 2005) or to ignore one's own knowledge of an object's location (Southgate, Senju, & Csibra, 2007)...

    Ian A. Apperly. What is “theory of mind”? Concepts, cognitive processes and individual...

    • ...Second, with regard to understanding others’ reality representations, infants in the first half of the second year look longer at action outcomes when these are incongruent with the agent's representation of reality than when they are congruent (Scott, Baillargeon, Song & Leslie, 2010; Träuble, Marinović & Pauen, 2010; Scott & Baillargeon, 2009; Song & Baillargeon, 2008; Surian, Caldi & Sperber, 2007; Onishi & Baillargeon, 2005)...

    Birgit Knudsenet al. One-Year-Olds Warn Others About Negative Action Outcomes

    • ...At the end of the first year and beginning of the second, infants’ socio-communicative competencies, both gestural and verbal, are emerging in force, and looking-time studies also reveal infant intention understandings blossoming at this time (eg, Brandone & Wellman, 2009; Gergley, et al, 1995; Phillips, et al, 2002; Onishi & Baillargeon, 2005)...

    Sarah Dunphy-Leliiet al. The Social Context of Infant Intention Understanding

    • ...Looking-time studies also suggest that one-year-olds are surprised when an adult acts in a way that is inconsistent with her previous observation (Onishi & Baillargeon, 2005; Surian, Caldi, & Sperber, 2007), and that even 7-month-olds keep track of what others have and have not seen (Kovács, Teglás, Endress, 2010)...

    Henrike Mollet al. Two and Three-Year-olds Know What Others Have and Have Not Heard

    • ...Most notably, studies on preverbal infants have shown the difficulty of inferring the absence of representations of others' mental states from poor performance in ToM tests (Onishi & Baillargeon, 2005; Southgate, Senju, & Csibra, 2007; Surian, Caldi, & Sperber, 2007), raising the very same methodological issues that we have highlighted here for dyslexia...

    Franck Ramuset al. Developmental dyslexia: The difficulties of interpreting poor performa...

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