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Emerging self-exploration by 2-month-old infants

Emerging self-exploration by 2-month-old infants,10.1111/1467-7687.00069,Developmental Science,Philippe Rochat,Tricia Striano

Emerging self-exploration by 2-month-old infants   (Citations: 25)
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Two-month-olds and newborns were tested in a situation where they had the opportunity to experience different auditory consequences of their own oral activity on a dummy pacifier. Modulation of oral activity was scored and analyzed relative to two types of contingent auditory feedback, either analog or non-analog to the effort exerted by the infant on the pacifier. The dummy pacifier was connected to an air pressure transducer for recording of oral action. In two different experimental conditions, each time the infant sucked above a certain pressure threshold they heard a perfectly contingent sound of varying pitch. In one condition, the pitch variation was analog to the pressure applied by the infant on the pacifier (analog condition). In another, the pitch variation was random (non-analog condition). As rationale, a differential modulation of oral activity in these two conditions was construed as indexing some voluntary control and the sense of a causal link between sucking and its auditory consequences, beyond mere temporal contingency detection and response-stimulus association. Results indicated that 2-month-olds showed clear signs of modulation of their oral activity on the pacifier as a function of analog versus non-analog condition. In contrast, newborns did not show any signs of such modulation either between experimental conditions (analog versus non-analog contingent sounds) or between baseline (no contingent sounds condition) and experimental conditions. These observations are interpreted as evidence of self-exploration and the emergence of a sense of self-agency by 2 months of age.
Journal: Developmental Science - DEV SCI , vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 206-218, 1999
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    • ...For example, 2-month-old infants can modulate their oral activity (sucking on a dummy pacifier) to increase the optical clarity of a film presented to them or to control the pitch variation of a sound (Rochat & Striano, 1999)...

    Matthis Synofziket al. I move, therefore I am: A new theoretical framework to investigate age...

    • ...One component common to virtually all of this work (except for Rochat & Striano, 2002, discussed subsequently) is that there is a perfect 100% correlation between proprioceptive information and the visual information (e.g., Bahrick & Watson, 1985; Rochat, 1998; Rochat & Morgan, 1995, 1998; Schmuckler, 1996b; Schmuckler & Fairhall, 2001), or between oral-tactual and auditory information (Rochat & Striano, 1999)...

    Mark A. Schmuckleret al. Infants' visual-proprioceptive intermodal perception with imperfect co...

    • ...For instance, babies are able to systematically adapt their sucking behavior (i.e., the pressure applied to a pacifier) to increase the optical clarity of a movie presented to them[87] or to modify the pitch of a tone[88]...

    Bernhard Hommel. Planning and Representing Intentional Action

    • ...Rochat & Striano (1999) manipulated the pacifier of 2-months-old babies such that the pressure the babies applied to it systematically modified the pitch of a tone presented to them...

    Bernhard Hommel. In the beginning was the act: a plea for an action-oriented approach t...

    • ...Although very early on and even immediately after birth infants demonstrate instrumental learning, sucking to hear their mother’ s voice or to see a bright image (DeCasper & Fifer, 1981; Siqueland & Delucia, 1969), we collected evidence suggesting that it is only by 2 months that infants begin to pay particular attention to the perceptual consequences of their own action (Rochat & Striano, 1999b)...
    • ...We interpreted these results as indexing systematic self-exploration and an emerging sense of self-agency (Rochat & Striano, 1999b)...
    • ...We assessed newborns’ relative ability to adjust and modulate oral activity as a function of condition by analyzing and comparing means and standard deviations of oro-haptic pressure amplitude, frequency, and pressure signals’width (see Rochat & Striano, 1999b for the details of similar analyses)...
    • ...This inhibition, apparent by 2-montholds as suggested by our first research (Rochat & Striano, 1999b), is probably still too demanding for newborns...

    Tricia Striano. Perceived self in infancy

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