Academic
Publications
The future of input devices

The future of input devices,10.1145/242224.242400,ACM Computing Surveys,Robert J. K. Jacob

The future of input devices   (Citations: 14)
BibTex | RIS | RefWorks Download
All aspects of human-computer interaction, from the high-level concerns of organizational context and system requirements to the conceptual, semantic, syntactic, and lexical levels of user interface design, are ultimately funneled through physical input and output actions and devices. The fundamental task in computer input is to move information from the brain of the user to the computer. Progress in this discipline attempts to increase the useful bandwidth across that interface by seeking faster, more natural, and more convenient means for a user to transmit information to a computer. This position paper gives some of the technical background for this area along with a brief survey of the range of input devices currently in use and emerging. Then it attempts to predict future trends in input. Some of those trends point toward devices and interaction styles that are sufficiently different from those in current use that they will require research into whole new types of interfaces, new interaction techniques, and new user interface software architectures. For example, some new styles of interaction revolve around parallel, continuous streams of input, while most current user interface software techniques assume a single stream of discrete events or tokens. Background A designer looks at the interaction tasks necessary for a particular application (3). Interaction tasks are low-level primitive inputs required from the user, such as entering a text string or choosing a command. For each such task, the designer chooses an appropriate interaction device and interaction technique. An interaction technique is a way of using a phy- sical device to perform an interaction task. There may be several different ways of using the same device to perform the same task. For example, one could use a mouse to select a com- mand by using a pop-up menu, a fixed menu (or palette), multiple clicking, circling the desired command, or even writing the name of the command with the mouse. User performance with many types of manual input depends on the speed with which the user can move his or her hand to a target. Fitts' Law provides a way to predict this, and is a key foundation in input design (2). It predicts the time required to move based on the distance to be moved and the size of the destination target. The time is proportional to the logarithm of of the distance divided by the target width. This leads to a tradeoff between distance and tar- get width: it takes as much additional time to reach a target that is twice as far away as it does to reach one that is half as large. Different manual input devices give rise to different propor- tionality constants in the equation. Some thus give better overall performance, and others, better performance either for long moves or short moves, but the one-for-one tradeoff between distance and target size remains.
Journal: ACM Computing Surveys - CSUR , vol. 28, no. 4es, pp. 138-es, 1996
Cumulative Annual
View Publication
The following links allow you to view full publications. These links are maintained by other sources not affiliated with Microsoft Academic Search.
    • ...2.3 Heart Rate as a Form of Input Several researchers have suggested the possibility of using heart rate for computer input [3, 16, 28]...

    Tadeusz Stachet al. Heart rate control of exercise video games

    • ...The properties of the input mechanism can guide the pairing of input mechanism and action, and here we highlight five properties that have been identified in previous research on input issues (e.g., [14,16,17])...
    • ...Positional devices generally map best to positional tasks, and force has traditionally been used as a mapping for rate [14,17]...
    • ...Absolute devices are best mapped to finite virtual spaces [17]...

    Jared Cechanowiczet al. Augmented Interactions: A Framework for Adding Expressive Power to GUI...

    • ...Perhaps the application area that would benefit the greatest with the maturation of vision-based gaze estimation techniques would be in human-computer interaction [13, 6, 5]. With the availability of affordable computational power and high-quality imaging hardware, eye trackers may well become standard issue on personal computers in the near future...

    Kar-han Tanet al. Appearance-based Eye Gaze Estimation

    • ...The amount of information or bandwidth that is communicated from computer to user is typically far larger than the bandwidth from user to computer [Jacob96]...

    Vítor Sáet al. Vision-Based Interaction within a Multimodal Framework

    • ...“Graphics, animations, audio, and other media usually result in large amounts of output data, but we do not yet have means of feeding comparably large amounts of information from the user to the computer” [11]...

    Axel Hildebrandet al. EMBASSI: Electronic Multimedia and Service Assistance

Sort by: