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Intra- and inter-annual growth rate of modern stalagmites

Intra- and inter-annual growth rate of modern stalagmites,10.1016/S0009-2541(00)00399-5,Chemical Geology,Dominique Genty,Andy Baker,Barbara Vokal

Intra- and inter-annual growth rate of modern stalagmites   (Citations: 61)
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We measure the factors that determine growth rate (temperature, drip rate, calcium ion concentration) for 31 waters that feed stalagmites within six cave systems throughout Europe. Water samples were collected at a frequency of at least 1 month, to permit the modelling of both inter- and intra-annual growth rate variations, utilising the theory of Wolfgang Dreybrodt (Chem. Geol. 29 (1980) 89–105; Chem. Geol. 32 (1981) 237–245; Dreybrodt, W., 1988. Processes in Karst Systems. Springer-Verlag, Berlin 288 pp.). Inter-annual growth rates were measured using the stalagmites that were associated with the analysed water samples; growth rate was determined from annual lamina counting, specific time markers within the stalagmites, and location of bomb 14C. When compared to theoretically predicted values, a good agreement between theoretical and measured stalagmite growth rates is observed (R2=0.69). When compared to site climate and geochemical parameters, a good correlation is observed between measured growth rate and mean annual temperature for five sites (R2=0.63) and dripwater calcium content (R2=0.61), but not drip rate (R2=0.09). The good correlation with both calcium and temperature is due to soil CO2 production being primarily determined by surface temperature and soil moisture. However, when we compare our data to that in the Grotte de Clamouse, a site that has little soil cover, we observe that the growth rate–temperature relationship breaks down due to either the lack of soil CO2 production or prior calcite precipitation. Intra-annual data demonstrates that maximum growth rate occurs when calcium concentrations are high, and that this occurs under different seasons depending on the hydrology of each site. Our results demonstrate a stronger dependence of intra-annual stalagmite growth rate on dissolved calcium ion concentrations than drip rate for the range of drip rates investigated here (0.01<t<2drip s−1), but for lower drip rates, this factor becomes important in controlling growth rate. We suggest that for well-monitored and -understood sites, stalagmite growth rate variations can provide useful information for palaeoclimate reconstruction.
Journal: Chemical Geology - CHEM GEOL , vol. 176, no. 1, pp. 191-212, 2001
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    • ...Dense layers are formed from fast dripping water in the wet seasons 22 23, while porous layers represent the crystallisation of residual carbonate material and eventually re-crystallisation of the carbonate surface in the water film...

    Saša Zavadlavet al. C and O stable isotopic signatures of fast-growing dripstones on alkal...

    • ... pathways (C3/C4 pathways), i.e., vegetation type, affecting the isotopic composition of dissolved in the water; (3) temperature, affecting biological activity and isotopic equilibrium; (4) bedrock proportion, varying the isotopic composition of seepage water when passing through the rock; and (5) drip rate, influencing the deposition equilibrium between water and stalagmites (Lauritzen and Lundber 1999; Genty and Massault 1999; Genty et al., ...

    C. Jiménez de Cisneroset al. Carbon isotope values as paleoclimatic indicators. Study on stalagmite...

    • ...rate of stalagmite, because drip rate is a key factor for stalagmite growth when the drip rate is low [Genty et al., 2001], less dripping would lead to a reduced growth rate in cave deposits [Baker et al., 2007]...

    Binggui Caiet al. Effects of intraseasonal variation of summer monsoon rainfall on stabl...

    • ...calcite speleothems) may provide high-resolution proxy tools for paleoclimate reconstruction (Genty et al., 2001; Verheyden, 2001; Verheyden et al., 2006)...
    • ...The stalagmite growth is not only governed by the water supply (Kaufmann and Dreybrodt, 2004) but also by the CaCO3 saturation of the depositing water and thus initially, the CO2 content, which is inherently related to soil activity (Baker and Smart, 1995; Genty et al., 2001; Kaufmann and Dreybrodt, 2004)...

    Sophie Verheydenet al. Paleoclimate reconstruction in the Levant region from the geochemistry...

    • ...In particular, many studies that analyse growth layers have attempted to identify wet and dry climatic periods (Baker et al. 1997; McGarry and Baker 2000; Genty et al. 2001) as well as the mineralogy of the speleothems, especially Mg and other trace elements (Roberts et al. 1998; Fairchild et al. 2000; Huang et al. 2001)...

    J. M. Calaforraet al. Speleothems in gypsum caves and their paleoclimatological significance

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