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Grammatical Functions and Word Order in Combinatory Grammar

Grammatical Functions and Word Order in Combinatory Grammar,Cem Bozsahin

Grammatical Functions and Word Order in Combinatory Grammar   (Citations: 2)
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This study is concerned with surface marking of grammatical functions (GFs), and its implications for a categorial theory of grammar that postulates only surface constituents. Different manifestations of gramma tical function mark- ing, such as morphological case, word order configurations, and phrase struc- ture relations, pose challenges to any linguistic theory th at eschews interme- diate levels of representation and formulates solutions in terms of (universal) grammar, lexicon, and surface constituents. Lexical-Functional Grammar and Relational Grammar address this problem by positing a functional structure (or stratal diagrams in Relational Grammar terminology) in addition to the constituent structure. Grammatical functions are primiti ves in both theories. This also allows for generalizing over such primitives, suc h as the NP acces- sibility hierarchy of Keenan and Comrie (1977). This work proposes a Combinatory Grammar formulation of functional structure in which grammatical functions are not taken as primitives but are derived from the categories of GF governing lexical elements in derivations of surface constituents. Dowty (1982) showed how "one at a time" encod- ing of the verb's arguments can be exploited to derive gramma tical func- tions in Montague Grammar. Word order variations and different realizations of case marking are accounted for by deriving language specific rules from universal rules for identifying grammatical functions in b ounded construc- tions. I attempt to show in this paper that, in terms of Combinatory Gram- mar with direct pairing of surface structure and predicate- argument structure, when unbounded constructions (e.g., relativization, subo rdination, coordina- tion) are also taken into account, GF marking can be most readily identi- fied with the combinator T (type shifter) operating on the typed predicate- argument structure. A unique grammatical formulation of T can preserve grammatical functions over long distances and different word orders, to be carried over by rules of application and composition. This c haracterization of T also enables the statement of grammatical hierarchies without further stip- ulation or additional representations in the grammar archi tecture. The flexi- bility required for recovering grammatical functions unde r varying degrees of
Published in 1997.
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