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Terrestrial adaptations in the Anomura (Crustacea: Decapoda)

Terrestrial adaptations in the Anomura (Crustacea: Decapoda),PETER GREENAWAY

Terrestrial adaptations in the Anomura (Crustacea: Decapoda)   (Citations: 21)
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Greenaway, P. 2003. Terrestrial adaptations in the Anomura (Crustacea: Decapoda). In: Lemaitre, R., and Tudge, C.C. (eds), Biology of the Anomura. Proceedings of a symposium at the Fifth International Crustacean Congress, Melbourne, Australia, 9-13 July 2001. Memoirs of Museum Victoria 60(1): 13-26. In this review, morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations to life on land by anomurans are considered. The most terrestrial group are the Coenobitidae and these have developed terrestrial adaptations broadly similar to those of the terrestrial brachyurans. The coenobitids have developed two evolutionary, terrestrial lines. Coenobita spp. retain the protective gastropod shell and this has placed a set of constraints on morphological, physiological and behavioural development particularly in regard to gas exchange, osmoregulation and excretion. Birgus do not carry molluscan shells after the juvenile stages and, freed from its constraints, reach larger size and have developed terrestrial adaptations that closely parallel those of the brachyuran land crabs. Shell retention by Coenobita has resulted in development of novel abdominal gas exchange organs whilst purine excretion by B. latro seems to be unique amongst land crabs. Crabs of both genera are well adapted to life on land in terms of sensory, respiratory, excretory and osmoregulatory functions and they can also moult, mate and lay eggs effectively on land. Several species have the functional ability to live in a range of habitats from rainforest to arid scrubland but their penetration of these habitats is limited to small islands or to a narrow coastal strip. This is probably due to the retention of pelagic larval stages and to the lack of molluscan shells of suitable dimensions and strength in inland situations, which restrict the range to a manageable distance from the sea.
Published in 2003.
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    • ...It hunts other crabs and small animals such as tortoise hatchlings and attacks injured animals such as seabirds and scavenges carcasses (Greenaway 2001, 2003)...
    • ...The ability of B. latro to store large amounts of fat enable it to capitalise on periodic abundance of food and to survive long periods of starvation (Greenaway 2003)...
    • ...With a body mass up to 3 kg, B. latro is by far the largest of the terrestrial invertebrates and is believed to grow slowly and to take 40– 60 years to reach maximum size (Greenaway 2003)...

    Joanne E. Wildeet al. Dietary assimilation and the digestive strategy of the omnivorous anom...

    • ...black back crab Gecarcinus lateralis, ghost crab Ocypode quadrata: Wolcott and Wolcott, 1985, 1991; Wolcott, 1992; robber crab Birgus latro: Greenaway and Morris, 1989; Greenaway et al., 1990; Morris et al., 1991; Taylor et al., 1993; little nipper Geograpsus grayi: Varley and Greenaway, 1994; red crab Gecarcoidea natalis: Morris, 2001; Taylor and Greenaway, 2002; Greenaway, 2003)...
    • ...In the terrestrial anomuran B. latro, dopamine, a biogenic amine released from the pericardial organs, downregulates branchial Na uptake and Na + /K + -ATPase in the gill epithelial cells (Morris et al., 2000; Greenaway, 2003)...
    • ...The terrestrial gecarcinid was established to be quite different to the anomuran B. latro and this is consistent with a separate evolution to life on land (Morris, 2001, 2002; Taylor and Greenaway, 2002; Greenaway, 2003)...

    Stephen Morriset al. Regulation of urine reprocessing in the maintenance of sodium and wate...

    • ...The single known exception is the terrestrial anomuran Birgus latro, which is purinotelic excreting urate (Greenaway and Morris, 1989) and guanine (Greenaway, 2003)...
    • ...Recent data, including enzyme activities and nitrogen utilization (Linton and Greenaway, 1998, 2000) have lead to the suggestion of a storage‐excretion function for the urate accumulated by G. natalis (Greenaway, 2003)...

    Dirk Weihrauchet al. Review Ammonia excretion in aquatic and terrestrial crabs

    • ...These include representatives of the Isopoda, Amphipoda, Astacida, Anomura, and Brachyura (Friend and Richardson 1986 ;W € 1989; Morritt and Spicer 1998; Hartnoll 1988; Richardson and Swain 2000; Greenaway 2003; Richardson 2007)...
    • ...They include 15 species of shell-carrying land hermit crabs (the genus Coenobita) and the robber or coconut crab B. latro (genus Birgus), the largest living land arthropod (Harms 1937; Grubb 1971; Greenaway 2003; Fig. 8.3)...
    • ...In addition, Coenobitidae use their first antennae to touch and sample the ground (Greenaway 2003), which suggests the presence of taste receptors...

    Bill S. Hanssonet al. The Neural and Behavioral Basis of Chemical Communication in Terrestri...

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