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Wagner''s "Law" of expanding state activity

Wagner''s "Law" of expanding state activity,R. M. Bird

Wagner''s "Law" of expanding state activity   (Citations: 57)
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Published in 1996.
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    • ...Specifically, Wagner attributed the growth of the public sector to higher expenditures in areas such as enforcing contracts and regulatory activities (necessitated by a higher demand for government interventions in an economy with new layers of externalities and interdependencies), income elastic “cultural and welfare” programs, public long-term investment and infrastructure projects, and managing and financing natural monopolies (see, for example, Bird, 1971...

    Saeid Mahdavi. A re-examination of Wagner's Law using US total state and local expend...

    • ...According to Wagner, as per capita income rises in industrializing nations (Bird, 1971), the share of their public-sector expenditures also increases (Chletsos and Kollias, 1997) so as to accommodate the expanded functions of the state, especially those associated with the new, improved and/or expanded public goods and services that the government shall provide at each of the economic and development stages of a society...

    Alberto J. Iniguez-Montiel. Government expenditure and national income in Mexico: Keynes versus Wa...

    • ...model. This has been explained by the fact that as a country industrializes the demand for public sector services; through economic regulation, enforcement of law and order, provision of cultural and welfare services including education, health and income redistribution; increases [7,10]...

    Joseph M. Frimponget al. Does the Wagner's Hypothesis Matter in Developing Economies? Evidence ...

    • ...In other words, accompany with increasing per capita income in industrious countries, increases relative importance of governmental sections (Bird, 1971)...
    • ...Granger causality test has vast usages in applied econometric studies and is defined as follows: "if Y is predicted better with past values of X - rather than without these values - X is Granger causality of Y (Bird, 1971)"...
    • ...Usually, lags are determined 1, 2, 3 or 4 (Bird, 1971)...

    Mohammad Ghorbaniet al. Investigating Wagner's law in Iran' s economy

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