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Stratum radiatum giant cells: a type of principal cell in the rat hippocampus

Stratum radiatum giant cells: a type of principal cell in the rat hippocampus,10.1046/j.1460-9568.1998.00402.x,European Journal of Neuroscience,A. I.

Stratum radiatum giant cells: a type of principal cell in the rat hippocampus   (Citations: 24)
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Neurons of a distinct type in CA1 area stratum radiatum of the rat hippocampus have been found to express a direct cellular form of long-term potentiation (LTP, Maccaferri & McBain, 1996, J. Neurosci. 16, 5334), but their functional identity, i.e. whether interneuron or principal cell, remained unknown. Whole cell recording from hippocampal slices in vitro was combined with light and electron microscopy to answer this question. LTP was robustly induced by a pairing protocol and physiological properties were measured in radiatum giant cells (RGCs) using biocytin containing pipettes. Reconstruction of the cells' dendritic and axonal arbor revealed morphological properties similar to CA1 pyramidal cells with some characteristic differences. They typically had two large diameter apical dendrites, or when only one dendrite arose, it soon bifurcated. Apical dendrites formed a dendritic tuft in stratum lacunosum-moleculare and the dendrites, but not the somata, were densely covered with conventional spines. The axon arose from the basal pole of the soma, descended to stratum oriens and emitted several axon terminals bearing collaterals that travelled horizontally, remaining in stratum oriens. The main, myelinated axon trunks turned towards the fimbria. In the electron microscope axon terminals were found to form asymmetrical synapses on postsynaptic dendritic shafts and dendritic spines in stratum oriens. The dendrites received asymmetrical synapses, mostly on their spines. The axon initial segments also received several synapses, a feature never observed on interneurons. All the above characteristics support the conclusion that RGCs are excitatory principal neurons.
Journal: European Journal of Neuroscience - EUR J NEUROSCI , vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 3813-3822, 1998
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    • ... This finding has been extended in another study that compared interneurons in the stratum radiatum with 'giant' glutamatergic neurons, which also occur in this region and also express LTP after tetanic stimulatio...

    Karri P. Lamsaet al. Long-term synaptic plasticity in hippocampal interneurons

    • ...5 and 6). It should be emphasized that we excluded from examination all cells characterized by a triangular (or close to this) shape, as well as other neurons with three thick processes; it seems probable that these units were pyramidal cells [14, 15]...

    A. O. Grigorovet al. Differentiation of potassium currents in cultured inhibitory interneur...

    • ...

      We avoided 'giant' glutamatergic cells, which occur at low frequency close to stratum pyramidal...

    Karri Lamsaet al. Hebbian LTP in feed-forward inhibitory interneurons and the temporal f...

    • ...We therefore propose that these neurons do not constitute a distinct interneuronal class, but rather are the equivalent of O-LM cells involved in a local circuit in association primarily with pyramidal cells located in stratum radiatum (Maccaferri and McBain, 1996; Gulyas et al., 1998), which have extensive local axon collaterals in stratum radiatum (G. Vida and P. Somogyi, unpublished observation)...

    Francesco Ferragutiet al. Immunolocalization of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1? (mGluR1?) in ...

    • ...It was recently shown that a population of projection cells, known as giant cells, exists in the stratum radiatum region of the hippocampal formation (Gulyas et al., 1998)...
    • ...Giant cells exhibited an NMDAr-dependent form of LTP when depolarized to 220 mV and synaptically stimulated at 1 Hz (Maccaferri and McBain, 1996; Gulyas et al., 1998), whereas identified interneurons did not (Maccaferri and McBain, 1996)...
    • ...A second difference is that, compared to principal cells, interneurons are relatively devoid of spines (Amaral and Witter, 1989; Van Groen and Wyss, 1990; Sik et al., 1998; Gulyas et al., 1998), and interneuron synaptic plasticity does not appear to be synapse-specific (McMahon and Kauer, 1997; Cowan et al., 1998)...
    • ...As depicted in Figure 1E,F, interneurons and giant cells could be further differentiated by the absence or presence of spiny processes on the dendrites (Gulyas et al., 1998; Parra et al., 1998)...
    • ...These results are in agreement with works that morphologically described stratum radiatum neurons (Lacaille and Schwartzkroin, 1988; McBain and Dingledine, 1993; Valtschanoff et al., 1993; Williams et al., 1994; Maccaferri and McBain, 1996; Gulyas et al., 1998)...
    • ...The present experiments confirm previous reports that differentiate hippocampal stratum radiatum giant cells and interneurons on the basis of several morphological differences (Lacaille et al., 1989; van Groen and Wyss, 1990; Maccaferri and McBain, 1996; Gulyas et al., 1998)...
    • ...Gulyas et al. (1998) suggested that these morphological features indicate that giant cells are likely excitatory cells and not inhibitory...

    Brian R. Christieet al. Synaptic plasticity in morphologically identified CA1 stratum radiatum...

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