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Diagnostic Guide for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Related Conditions: The 4 - Digit Diagnostic Code

Diagnostic Guide for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Related Conditions: The 4 - Digit Diagnostic Code,S. J. Astley,S. K. Clarren

Diagnostic Guide for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Related Conditions: The 4 - Digit Diagnostic Code   (Citations: 32)
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Published in 1997.
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    • ...The 4-Digit Code does not require confirmation of excessive exposure because (1) there is no known threshold of exposure below which all fetuses are not at risk for FAS; (2) requiring excessive exposure may send an unsafe message that only high levels of alcohol use are damaging to the fetus; and (3) it is rarely, if ever, possible to confirm the accuracy of the quantity, frequency, and timing of exposure reported to a diagnostic clinic...
    • ...Because of concerns regarding the Hoyme FAS diagnostic criteria, namely, (1) they relax the FAS facial phenotype criteria without confirming the phenotype’s specificity for FAS or prenatal alcohol exposure, (2) they allow FAS to be diagnosed when prenatal alcohol exposure is unknown, with the use of FAS facial criteria of unknown specificity for prenatal alcohol exposure, (3) they require confirmation of excessive prenatal alcohol ...
    • ...to assess the specificity of the Hoyme FAS facial phenotype for the Hoyme FAS diagnosis when the Hoyme guidelines were applied to the University of Washington FASD clinical population, (2) to assess the specificity of the Hoyme FAS facial phenotype to prenatal alcohol exposure when the Hoyme diagnostic guidelines were applied to a study population with confirmed absence of prenatal alcohol exposure, (3) to compare the prevalence of FAS ...
    • ...The inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) the patient received an interdisciplinary FASD diagnostic evaluation at the University of Washington FAS DPN clinic with the FASD 4-Digit Diagnostic Code; (2) the patient gave consent for use of the FAS DPN clinical data for research purposes; and (3) all data required to render a FAS diagnosis with the Hoyme guidelines (ie, measures of growth, face, brain growth and/or morphogenesis, and ...
    • ...The 4 digits of the diagnostic code reflect the magnitude of expression of the 4 key diagnostic features of FASD, in the following order: (1) growth deficiency, (2) FAS facial phenotype, (3) CNS abnormalities, and (4) prenatal alcohol exposure (Figs 1‐3)...
    • ...The rank 4 FAS facial phenotype determined with the 4-Digit Diagnostic Code5 requires the presence of the following 3 anomalies: (1) PFL below 2 SD, (2) smooth philtrum (rank 4 or 5 on the Lip-Philtrum Guide), and (3) thin upper lip (rank 4 or 5 on the Lip-Philtrum Guide)...
    • ...If a cluster of facial features truly is unique to prenatal alcohol exposure (meaning that alcohol is the only agent that can cause this facial phenotype) and is unique to the diagnosis of FAS (meaning that this exact phenotype is not present in any other medical condition), then we would expect to observe the following: (1) the face would be highly sensitive for FAS (individuals with FAS would have the FAS facial phenotype), (2) the face ...
    • ...(2) Hoyme et al8 used data for previously diagnosed South African and Native American patients (1998‐2003)22 to formulate their diagnostic criteria...

    Susan J. Astley. Comparison of the 4Digit Diagnostic Code and the Hoyme Diagnostic Guid...

    • ...Every child received a physical examination to assess for the presence of the diagnostic features of FASD using the Diagnostic Guide for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Related Conditions (Astley, 2004; Astley & Clarren, 1999)...

    Amy M. Schonfeldet al. Executive Functioning Predicts Social Skills Following Prenatal Alcoho...

    • ...For Personal Use Only system known as the four-digit diagnostic coding for FASD: (a) no risk, (b) unknown risk, (c) some risk, and (d) high risk (Astley & Clarren, 1999, 2000)...
    • ...Information from the chart on PNE was translated into a four-digit code diagnostic system developed by Astley and Clarren (1999, 2000)...
    • ...b. Four-digit diagnostic code as described by Astley and Clarren (1999, 2000) was used to determine risk for gestational exposure...

    Vinod Bhataraet al. Association of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Gestationa...

    • ...In 1997, a new more objective and comprehensive, case-defined method for diagnosing the full spectrum of outcomes in individuals with prenatal alcohol exposure was created called the 4-Digit Diagnostic Code (Astley & Clarren, 1997, 1999, 2000)...

    SUSAN J. ASTLEYet al. MEASURING THE FACIAL PHENOTYPE OF INDIVIDUALS WITH PRENATAL ALCOHOL EX...

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