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The Development of Consciousness of Self and the Emergence of Racial Identification in Negro Preschool Children

The Development of Consciousness of Self and the Emergence of Racial Identification in Negro Preschool Children,10.1080/00224545.1939.9713394,Journal

The Development of Consciousness of Self and the Emergence of Racial Identification in Negro Preschool Children   (Citations: 61)
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Journal: Journal of Social Psychology - J SOC PSYCHOL , vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 591-599, 1939
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    • ...Horowitz (1936) and Horowitz and Horowitz (1939) and Clark and Clark (1939) studied the racial attitudes of white and black children respectively...

    Mercy Karuniah Jesuvadianet al. Doll tales: foregrounding children's voices in research

    • ...Over 65 years ago, Kenneth and Mamie Clark conducted a racial preference and attitude study that examined Black children’s preferences for White and Black dolls (Clark & Clark, 1939; 1947)...
    • ... me the doll that: (1) you like to play with or the doll you like best, (2) is the nice doll, (3) looks bad, (4) is a nice color, (5) looks like a White child, (6) looks like a colored child, (7) looks like a Negro child, (8) looks like you.” Questions 1 through 4 were designed to disclose preferences; questions 5, 6, and 7 examined children’s knowledge of differences between races; and question 8 probed children’s selfidentification (Clark, ...
    • ...The cartoons were paired side-by-side; the child was asked to point to or show the cartoon on the laptop monitor in relation to the following questions: Who (1) you would like as a playmate or best friend, (2) looks nice, (3) looks bad, (4) has a nice skin color, (5) looks like a White child, (6) looks like a Black child, and (7) looks like you (Clark & Clark 1939, 1947)...
    • ...Re-examination of Young Children’s Racial Attitudes friend, (2) looks nice, (3) looks bad, (4) has a nice skin color, (5) looks like a White child, (6) looks like a Black child, and (7) looks like you (Clark & Clark 1939, 1947)...
    • ...For over half a century, American studies have revealed that when presented with Black and White dolls, young Black children attribute more positive qualities to White dolls and more negative attributes to Black dolls (Clark & Clark, 1939, 1947; Davis, 2006; Greenwald & Oppenheim, 1968; Powell-Hopson & Hopson, 1992)...
    • ...This discrepant finding might relate to the children having more options with the greater skin tone variations in the cartoon characters, as opposed to having to choose between Black and White dolls in previous studies (Clark & Clark, 1939; Davis, 2006; Greenwald & Oppenheim, 1968; Lewis & Biber, 1951; Morland, 1962, 1966 ). The hypothesis that more options may affect children’s skin tone preferences was supported in the ...

    Phillip E. Jordanet al. Reexamination of Young Children's Racial Attitudes and Skin Tone Prefe...

    • ...Arguably the most central of these were the doll studies conducted by Clark and Clark (1939)...
    • ...Clark and Clark (1939) interpreted their findings as a demonstrating the identity-undermining effects of racial segregation on young African American boys and girls...
    • ...Perhaps in response to the Clark’s (Clark and Clark 1939) work, post civil rights literature on racial–ethnic identities focused on demonstrating that doll choice had changed (e.g., Hraba and Grant 1970) and that racial–ethnic identity was positively associated with indicators of mental health and self-esteem...
    • ...Seventy years ago, Clark and Clark (1939) argued that segregation was bad for the academic outcomes of minority youth because it had pernicious consequences for their identities...

    Daphna Oysermanet al. Neighborhood Effects on Racial–Ethnic Identity: The Undermining Role o...

    • ...The racial identity of Blacks has received considerable attention from psychologists following the pioneering work of Clark and Clark (1939) and the first comprehensive model of Black racial identity put forward by Cross (1971, 1991; Cross & Vandiver, 2001)...

    Richard N. Lalondeet al. Racial Identity, Racial Attitudes, and Race Socialization Among Black ...

    • ...Early Black racial identity research, in particular, that conducted by Eugene and Ruth Horwitz and Kenneth and Mamie Clark, suggested the existence of Black self-hatred manifested in a preference for White over Black among African–American children (Clark & Clark, 1939; Horwitz & Horwitz, 1939)...
    • ...While early research on African American racial identity purported to assess both public and private regard using the Doll Test (Clark & Clark, 1939; i.e...

    Brian E. Harperet al. Racial identity beliefs and academic achievement: does being black hol...

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