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MEMORY DISTORTIONS DEVELOP OVER TIME

MEMORY DISTORTIONS DEVELOP OVER TIME,H. Schmolck,E. a. Buffalo,L. r. Squire

MEMORY DISTORTIONS DEVELOP OVER TIME   (Citations: 10)
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Abstract— Fifteen or 32 months,after the verdict was,announced,in the O.J. Simpson murder trial, we asked college students about how they had heard the news, and we compared their responses with what they had told us 3 days after the verdict. Our study is the first to have assessed recollective accuracy,at two different intervals more than 1 year after a noted public event. The quality of the recollections after 32 months,was strikingly different from the quality of the recollections after 15 months. After 15 months, 50% of the recollections were highly accurate, and only 11% contained major errors or distortions. After 32 months, only 29% of the recollections were highly accurate, and more,than 40% contained,major distortions. Retention interval appears,to be an important,factor determining,the frequency,of memory distortions, and differences in the retention interval across studies may,account for some,of the contradictions in the flashbulbmemory,literature. Metamemory,errors and source memory,difficulties are,a likely basis of poor memory performance after long retention intervals. The results highlight the marked,qualitative changes,in recollections that can occur between,1 and 3 years after information has been acquired. Brown and Kulik (1977) introduced the term flashbulb memoryto
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    • ...Experiments that have utilized this test–retest approach have demonstrated that flashbulb memories are often inaccurate and that flashbulb memories are actually just as susceptible to memory distortion over time as ‘ordinary’ memories (Neisser & Harsch, 1992; Talarico & Rubin, 2003; Weaver, 1993) and so it seems that there is no special mechanism for the formation of flashbulb memories (McCloskey, Wible, & Cohen, 1988; Schmolck, ...
    • ...These results are inconsistent with previous results with respect to flashbulb memory (Schmolck et al., 2000; Talarico & Rubin, 2003)...
    • ...In contrast, in a study of memory for the O. J. Simpson verdict, Schmolck et al. (2000) reported a decline from 50% revealing evidence for consistent flashbulb memory at 15 months to 29% at 32 months...

    ANDREW R. A. CONWAYet al. Flashbulb Memory for 11 September 2001

    • ...Yet, as in eyewitness testimony (Loftus, 1975; Loftus & Zanni, 1975; Yuille & Cutshall, 1986), there is debate as to the degree to which these memories are susceptible to distortion and reconstruction over time (Neisser & Harsch, 1992; Schmolck, Buffalo, & Squire, 2000)...

    Laura A. Thomaset al. Emotional arousal enhances word repetition priming

    • ...Those memories, dubbed flashbulb memories by Brown and Kulik, have been the object of much research, including the examination of the amount of time required to observe distortion in those confidently held memories (Hornstein, Brown, & Mulligan, 2003; Schmolck, Buffalo, & Squire, 2000)...
    • ...Three days after the O. J. Simpson verdict was announced, more than 98% of respondents in a study by Schmolck et al. (2000) reported memories for reception context...
    • ...That high level of immediate memory is similar to that which has been observed in other studies (e.g., Christianson & Engelberg, 1999; Conway et al., 1994; Curci et al., 2001; Pezdek, 2003; Schmolck et al., 2000; Wright, 1993)...
    • ...over time, which is consistent with the idea that distortions in flashbulb memory emerge over time (Schmolck et al., 2000)...

    Olivier Luminetet al. The Cognitive, Emotional, and Social Impacts of the September 11 Attac...

    • ...Simpson murder-trial verdict (Schmolck, Buffalo, & Squire, 2000)...
    • ...Wright (1993); and Schmolck et al. (2000), among others, have all discussed the...

    Jennifer M. Talaricoet al. Confidence, Not Consistency, Characterizes Flashbulb Memories

    • ...In a recent article, Schmolck, Buffalo, and Squire (2000) investigated memory distortions in college students’ recollections of how they heard the verdict in the O.J...

    Daniel B. Horn. Confounding the Effects of Delay and Interference on Memory Distortion...

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