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A Research Agenda in Maritime Crew Resource Management

A Research Agenda in Maritime Crew Resource Management,Michael Barnett,David Gatfield,Claire Pekcan

A Research Agenda in Maritime Crew Resource Management   (Citations: 4)
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This paper opens with a brief introduction to the development of Crew Resource Management (CRM) training in the international shipping industry, a concept that was first advanced through the use of simulators in maritime training colleges over 25 years ago. The paper charts the development of the shipping industry's approach to the preparation of bridge and engine room teams for normal and abnormal operations, and critiques the current training regime in resource management. Two case studies are presented to highlight some of the CRM issues raised by recent maritime casualties, and the paper then proceeds to set out a research agenda for exploring some of these issues. The paper provides an overview of three research initiatives: the first is to gain a better theoretical understanding of the nature of shared situational awareness and mental models in "real world" maritime operations. A second initiative is to identify a set of behavioural markers for assessing the non-technical skills of crisis management. The third initiative is to explore the role of organisational factors in safe operation, in recognition of the limitations of operator training as a panacea to prevent the re-occurrence of accidents. The Development of Maritime CRM Training The use of simulation in providing solutions to the problems of crisis management and the optimal use of crew resources has a long established pedigree in maritime training. The first simulators were introduced for radar training over thirty years ago. Training in the proper interpretation of radar information started as a result of a number of radar-assisted collisions in the 1950's, notably the collision between the passenger ship "Andrea Doria" and the "Stockholm". Those early simulators consisted of real radars, located in a set of cubicles, and fed with simulated signals. Individuals or teams could learn the skills of radar plotting under the guidance of an instructor working at a separate master console. Other navigational aids in the simulator were fairly basic and certainly did not include a visual scene. Bridge simulators with a nocturnal visual scene made their appearance in the 1970's and allowed teams to conduct simulated passages in a realistic environment but with only a few lights available to indicate other vessels and shore lights. It was apparent from the casualty of the Very Large Crude Carrier (VLCC) "Metulla" in 1974, in which the vessel grounded in the Magellan Straits with two pilots and watch keepers present on the bridge, that bridge teams were not working effectively in supporting each other or the pilot. Simulator-based training courses were introduced primarily to train the skills of passage planning and the importance of the Master/Pilot relationship (Gyles and Salmon 1978). This training initiative developed into the Bridge Team Management (BTM) courses that are conducted today on many simulators world-wide and contain many of the elements to be found in CRM courses in other industries. Bridge Resource Management (BRM) courses are a more recent initiative, adapted directly from the aviation model, and are not always based on the use of simulators. The 1980s saw the introduction of Engine Room simulators and towards the end of that decade, cargo operations simulators also became available. These types of simulator have primarily been used to train officers in the handling of operations, including fault finding and problem diagnosis, and increasingly to train teams in the skills of systems, resource and crisis management. Many types of simulator: bridge, engine and cargo control room, have tended to emphasise a physically realistic
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    • ...Training in crisis management is likely to require a much more demanding approach to practise the skills required in these situations (Barnett, Gatfield & Pekcan, 2003)...
    • ...On the one hand, the decision-maker may derive increasingly bizarre hypotheses to explain the available information cues – the “kaleidoscopic” effect; or the decision-maker may become fixated on one pattern, refusing to change repertoires in the face of obviously conflicting information – the “mind-set” problem as exhibited by the “Green Lily” engineers. (Barnett, Gatfield & Pekcan, 2003)...

    David Gatfield. Using simulation to determine a framework for the objective assessment...

    • ...The competence assessment criteria detailed within the Code are not based on specific overt behaviours, but rather on generalised statements of performance outputs, and as such are highly subjective and open to interpretation (Barnett et al, 2003)...

    Claire Pekcan. CONTENT AND CONTEXT: UNDERSTANDING THE COMPLEXITIES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOUR...

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