In the first study, the hypothesis was tested that in general optimistic procrastinators have chronically high action identities (i.e., a broad perspective on their actions), whereas pessimistic procrastinators have chronically low action identities to describe their behaviour. However, the data of the first study suggested that all procrastinators lack high action identities. The second study was set up to confront our original hypothesis with the alternative one that was based on the findings of the first study. Procrastinating students (classified based on questionnaire data), irrespective of type, were found to lack high action identities to describe their study activities, to have more specific intentions regarding studying, to postpone more of their intentions, and study less in general than did nonprocrastinators. Some recommendations are made to provide students with higher action identities. Copyright # 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.