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Auditory-Visual Speech Perception and Aging

Auditory-Visual Speech Perception and Aging,10.1097/00003446-200210000-00006,Ear and Hearing,Kathleen M. Cienkowski,Arlene Earley Carney

Auditory-Visual Speech Perception and Aging   (Citations: 20)
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Objective: This experiment was designed to assess the integration of auditory and visual information for speech perception in older adults. The integra- tion of place and voicing information was assessed across modalities using the McGurk effect. The fol- lowing questions were addressed: 1) Are older adults as successful as younger adults at integrat- ing auditory and visual information for speech per- ception? 2) Is successful integration of this informa- tion related to lipreading performance? Design: The performance of three groups of partic- ipants was compared: young adults with normal hearing and vision, older adults with normal to near-normal hearing and vision, and young con- trols, whose hearing thresholds were shifted with noise to match the older adults. Each participant completed a lipreading test and auditory and audi- tory-plus-visual identification of syllables with con- flicting auditory and visual cues. Results: The results show that on average older adults are as successful as young adults at integrat- ing auditory and visual information for speech per- ception at the syllable level. The number of fused responses did not differ for the CV tokens across the ages tested. Although there were no significant differences between groups for integration at the syllable level, there were differences in the re- sponse alternatives chosen. Young adults with nor- mal peripheral sensitivity often chose an auditory alternative whereas, older adults and control par- ticipants leaned toward visual alternatives. In ad- ditions, older adults demonstrated poorer lipread- ing performance than their younger counterparts. This was not related to successful integration of information at the syllable level. Conclusions: Based on the findings of this study, when auditory and visual integration of speech information fails to occur, producing a nonfused response, participants select an alternative re- sponse from the modality with the least ambiguous signal.
Journal: Ear and Hearing - EAR HEARING , vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 439-449, 2002
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    • ...This could partly be compensated for by the availability of visual information in audiovisual presentation (Grant & Walden, 1996; MacLeod & Summerfield, 1987; Walden, Prosek, Montgomery, Scherr, & Jones, 1977), though one should note that ageing also negatively affects visual processing and thus lip-reading ability (Cienkowski & Carney, 2002; Sommers, Tye-Murray, & Spehar, 2005; Tye-Murray, Sommers, & Spehar, 2007)...

    Esther Janseet al. Predicting foreign-accent adaptation in older adults

    • ...In testing the McGurk Effect with older and younger adults, older adults have been found to be susceptible to this illusion than younger adults, showing more of a visual influence on auditory perception (Cienkowski & Carney, 2002)...

    Michael S. Gordonet al. Audiovisual Speech in Older and Younger Adults: Integrating a Distorte...

    • ...Elderly adults are generally worse at lip-reading than young adults [16, 17], but their lip-reading ability is not related to their hearing sensitivity [18]...
    • ...Nevertheless, when presented with speech in multispeaker babble noise, elderly and young adults equated on their lip-reading abilities show similar sized audiovisual benefits [16, 17]...

    Alexandra Jesseet al. Visual Speech Information Aids Elderly Adults in Stream Segregation

    • ...and cognitive processes and have yielded conflicting results [9,26,59,60]...
    • ...Testing paradigms that have been used have typically compared a multisensory condition to a single unisensory condition [26,59,60] or have utilized multisensory illusions that occur in response to incongruent sensory stimulation [9,60]...

    Paul J. Laurientiet al. Enhanced multisensory integration in older adults

    • ...Although a few studies comparing AV scores in older and younger adults have been designed to minimize the influence of unimodal performance differences (Cienkowski & Carney, 2002; Walden et al., 1993), other methodological concerns make their findings difficult to interpret...
    • ...Cienkowski & Carney (2002) minimized the contribution of presbycusis in an AV perception task by comparing normal-hearing younger and older adults on susceptibility to the McGurk effect (McGurk & MacDonald, 1976)...

    Mitchell S. Sommerset al. Auditory-Visual Speech Perception and Auditory-Visual Enhancement in N...

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