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The response styles theory of depression: Tests and an extension of the theory

The response styles theory of depression: Tests and an extension of the theory,10.1037//0021-843X.106.2.221,Journal of Abnormal Psychology,Nancy Just,

The response styles theory of depression: Tests and an extension of the theory   (Citations: 211)
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The authors tested and extended S. Nolen-Hoeksem a's (1991) response styles (RSs) theory of depression by assessing the role of RSs in the onset of depressive episodes (DEs), controlling for the effects of concurrent depression, examining the dispositional aspects of RS, clarifying the role of distraction in the course of a DE, and studying the predictive validity of the Response Styles Questionnaire. Nondepressed (ND) participants who reported that they ruminate in response to their depressive symptoms were more likely to experience a DE over 18 months than were participants who reported that they distract themselves from their symptoms. Both a ruminative RS as measured in an ND state and the use of rumination during the first DE predicted the severity of that episode. In contrast, neither trait nor state rumination predicted the duration of the nrst DE. Participants showed moderate stability of RSs over 1 year and responded in a consistent manner when depressed.
Journal: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - J ABNORMAL PSYCHOL , vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 221-229, 1997
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