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RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DESIGN OF TRENCH WEIR

RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DESIGN OF TRENCH WEIR,Z. Ahmad,M. K. Mittal

RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DESIGN OF TRENCH WEIR   (Citations: 1)
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Most of the developments of small hydro power projects (SHP) are in hills due to the fact that there are large potential of SHP available in hilly regions in India. Hill streams carry large amount of heavy boulders rolling and moving along the bed along with smaller gravel and sand particles moving as bed load. Water is diverted from the streams to the intake channel of hydro power scheme using suitable diversion structures. Conventional types of raised-crest weirs are not well suited for hill streams. If such a weir is constructed across the stream, the rise in water level upstream of the weir brings a remarkable change in the flow conditions upstream. The sediments are deposited upstream of the crest as a result the intake gets easily choked up. Since diversions are interference to natural flow regime of the river, the extraction of water changes the flow conditions downstream of the intake. Undesirable sediment deposition occurs downstream of weir when too much water is extracted. Conversely, severe erosion downstream of the diversion occurs when remaining river flow passing downstream is carrying less sediment than its transport capacity. Moreover, any structural component that protrudes out of the river-bed (i.e., the top of a weir) gets damaged easily by the force of large sediments rolling down during floods (Paudyal and Tiwatchai 1987). Figure 1a shows raised crest weir with upstream and downstream condition at the time of construction and Figure 1b the condition of weir after some year of its construction. Figure 1 clearly indicates deposition of boulders in the upstream and degradation in the downstream of the weir.
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