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PTSD, risk factors, and expectations among women having a baby: A two-wave longitudinal study

PTSD, risk factors, and expectations among women having a baby: A two-wave longitudinal study,10.1080/01674820600712875,Journal of Psychosomatic Obste

PTSD, risk factors, and expectations among women having a baby: A two-wave longitudinal study   (Citations: 15)
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Introduction. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth in relation to pre-partum variables (personality characteristics, anamnestic risk factors) and intra-partum obstetrical and neonatal variables. Since expectations before an event could modify the perceptions, reactions, and satisfaction afterward, the representations of the idealized delivery were carefully analyzed. Moreover, the real and desired help perception from physicians and family members were separately considered during pregnancy and after delivery in relation to PTSD. Method. The study was carried out submitting a questionnaire to pregnant women twice: firstly when women were in their 38 � 42 gestational week (Time 1) and secondly after 3-6 months from childbirth (Time 2). 93 women were recruited at a University City Hospital in Milan, Italy. PTSD subscales, depression, and anxiety levels were also assessed. Results. 2.4% of women had a complete PTSD, while 32.1% of them resulted in having one or two positive subscales of symptoms: 15.5% (N ¼ 13) had a positive intrusion subscale, 25.0% (N ¼ 21) had a positive arousal subscale, while only 3.6% (N ¼ 3) had a positive avoidance subscale. Pre-delivery depression influences PTSD, but only for the intrusion subscale. Pre-delivery physical risk factors are linked to PTSD on the avoidance subscale. At Time 2 depression and PTSD are often present simultaneously. Given the high percentage of healthy newborns, intra-partum obstetrical variables do not seem to influence PTSD. High trait anxiety distinctively coexists with a specific expected delivery and a 'deception' in desired and real support from professionals. Conclusions. Childbirth is a risk condition for PTSD, depression during pregnancy influences the intrusion subscale, while having physical problems influences the arousal subscale. Expectations and support are modulated by the anxiety levels and they are not directly related to chronic PTSD.
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    • ...In the last few years, many researchers have turned their attention to post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the perinatal field studying the aetiology of PTSD following birth (Ayers & Pickering, 2001; Ayers & Wright, 2007; Creedy, Shochet, & Horsfall, 2000; Czarnocka & Slade, 2000; Maggioni, Margola, & Filippi, 2006; Menage, 1993; Soderquist, Wijma, & Wijma, 2002; Soet, Brack, & Dilorio, 2003; Wijma, Soderquist, & Wijma, 1997; Zaers, Waschke, & Elhert, 2008)...

    Anne Deniset al. Post‐traumatic stress disorder related to birth: a prospective longitu...

    • ...Following childbirth between 20% and 48% of women rate their experience of birth as traumatic (Alcorn, O’Donovan, Patrick, Creedy, & Devilly, 2010; Ayers, Harris, Sawyer, Parfitt, & Ford, 2009; Creedy, Shochet, & Horsfall, 2000; Soet, Brack, & Dilorio, 2003), and a similar number display one or more symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Maggioni, Margola, & Filippi, 2006)...

    Elizabeth Fordet al. Support during birth interacts with prior trauma and birth interventio...

    • ...The existing literature on postpartum PTSD typically focuses on PTSD related to traumatic childbirth (Cohen et al. 2004; Maggioni et al. 2006; Olde et al. 2006; Reynolds 1997), and does not address the potential significance of fluctuating (Born et al. 2006) or persisting PTSD symptomatology, which in women may be more commonly related to past or current interpersonal trauma exposure (Duncan et al. 1996; Mezey et al. 2005), throughout ...

    Jane M. Onoyeet al. PTSD and postpartum mental health in a sample of Caucasian, Asian, and...

    • ...There is growing evidence that the experience of childbirth can lead to the development of psychological trauma symptoms (PTS) and post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in some women (Ayers & Pickering, 2001; Ballard, Stanley, & Brockington, 1995; Creedy, Schochet, & Horsfall, 2000; Czarnocka & Slade, 2000; Gamble & Creedy, 2005; Lyons, 1998; Maggioni, Margola, & Filippi, 2006; Soderquist, Wijma, & Wijma, 2006; White, Mathey, Boyd, & Barnett, 2006; Wijma, Soderquist, & Wijma, 1997)...

    Zai Edworthyet al. The role of schema and appraisals in the development of post‐traumatic...

    • ...Experiencing obstetric complications during pregnancy or childbirth and undergoing a cesarean section have often been associated with PTSD (Maggioni et al. 2006), but no such associations were found in the present study...

    Carla Fonseca Zambaldiet al. Bio-socio-demographic factors associated with post-traumatic stress di...

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