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Response of PM Characteristics to NH3 and Other gaseous emission at a southeast layer operation

Response of PM Characteristics to NH3 and Other gaseous emission at a southeast layer operation,Zifei Liu,Lingjuan Wang,Qianfeng Li,David B. Beasley

Response of PM Characteristics to NH3 and Other gaseous emission at a southeast layer operation  
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Animal feeding operations (AFOs) contribute directly to primary particular matter (PM) in the atmosphere, and they can also emit large amount of ammonia and other gaseous pollutants. The objective of the study is to investigate the response of PM characteristics to the precursor concentrations in vicinity of a southeast layer operation.PM and gas samples were collected inside the layer houses and around the vicinities. This paper reports the preliminary results for the samples collected from Dec 16, 2008 to April 19. It was observed that, the percentage of both NO3 - and NH4 + were higher at ambient than that at source, which indicate the response of particulate matter (PM) to NH3 gas and the formation of NH4NO3. The average molar ratios of NH4 + to SO4 2- were calculated to be in the range from 2.25 to 2.78, which indicated an ammonia rich environment and complete neutralization of sulfate. The molar concentrations of free ammonia in particulate phase were obviously correlated with the gas phase NH3 concentrations at the ambient stations. It was also found that the mass concentrations of PM increased as NH3 gas concentration increased at the ambient stations. And the increase of PM in response to NH3 gas was mainly due to the neutralization of NH3 by other acid gases besides NO3 - and SO4 2- . The molar ratios of NH3/NH4 + were influenced by the availability of acid gases in the environment. The influences of temperature on gas particulate equilibrium were also observed.
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